Psychologists Studies In Developmental Psychology

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Schaffer and Emerson

  • Observed 60 Glasgow babies, middle-class
  • 4/10 babies formed attachment with person who played with them
  • Multiple attatchments more common then single attachments (slightly against bowlby, monotrophy)
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Harlow

  • Seperated baby monkeys, lactating mother and cloth mother (fake)
  • Formed attachment to cloth mum, cupboard love more important than food
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Bowlby

  • Continuity Hypothesis: Attachment formed affects later relationships.
  • Internal Working Model: Primary attachment provides model of how relationships work, how loveable they are and their trust with people.
  • Sensitive/Critical Period: First attatchment must be formed in critical (before age of 3), can be formed at most sensitive time.
  • Monotrophy: Bias attachment to 1, then secondary attachments.
  • Social Releasers: Babies insticts to get attention from caregiver (smiling/crying). Caregiver has instinct to react to releasers, protecting and caring.
  • Secure Base: Primary caregiver acts as 'secure base' for kid to explore, as want independance.
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Ainsworth

  • Baltimore American mothers and their 12-18 month old toddlers
  • Lab 'novel' play room setting, markers on floor showing movement. 8 episodes lasting 3 minutes e.g. mother leaving baby alone, returns with stranger approach baby. Measured seperation and stranger anxiety.(Markers showed secure base)

Different attachments found:

  • Secure: Safe base used, Upset when left but soothed easily when came back, Wary but accepted stanger after some time.
  • Insecure-Avoidant: Ignored mother and stranger when left and returned.
  • Insecure-Resistant: Upset when mother left, not soothed when came back, Angry and clingy, worried with stanger.

Found Secure as most common, attachment type depending on mothers sensitive care for the baby.

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van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenburg

  • Meta-analysis of 32 strange situations around the world
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Robertson & Robertson

John put in residential nursery while mother had a baby, showed 3 stages of reaction:

  • Protest: Cling to parent, not wanting them to leave. Cries and screams after they left.
  • Despair: Hopelessness, depression. Not interested in anythinig.
  • Detachment: Appears better, no longer distressed, appear 'switched off' from people.
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Hodges and Tizard

  • 65 children, childrens home until at least 4.
  • Natural experiment, home where physical care good, staff discouraged to form attatchment. When 2, average 24 carers. When 4, 25 to real parents, 33 adopted and 7 remained. Follow up on some at 8 and 16.

Close attachment at 8: Close attatchment at 16

  • Adopted: 20-21 Adopted: 17/21
  • Real P.: 6/13 Real P.: 5/9

Both kids with real parents ansd adopted found peer relations hard, less likely have best friend.

  • Can form attatchments outside sensitive period (against Bowlby), but will struggle with peer relations, people need to make more effort. Differences between children, some adopted some with real p. affecting outcome of study. 
  • After leaving institution quality of care depends on recovery.
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Koluchova

  • Twin boys, privation 18 months-7 years. Locked in unheated cellar, beaten, starved. No company apart from eachother.
  • 7, couldn't talk, terrified of adults, severe health problems.
  • Extensive treatment/rehabilitation, then placed in foster home. Developed language skills, attended mainstream schools.
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Skuse

  • 2 girls aged 2 1/2 and 3 1/2. Mother learning difficulties, tied them to bed with dog leads, prevented talking also.
  • Found, no speech, few social skills, no knowledge of how to play.
  • Louise developed language skills, started school. Mary, severe problems, autistic school.
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Rutter ET AL.

  • Romanian children in institution.
  • Those adopted after 6 months, more likely showing disinhibited attachment patterns than others adopted at earlier age.
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Andersson

  • Social/Cognitive processes of Swedish children attending daycare. 
  • Attending day care made children get on better with others, more sociable and outgoing.
  • Cannot generalise/universality as daycare in Sweden well funded/high quality. However findings supported.
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Schindler ET AL.

  • 57 children in US Daycare. Observed 2 weeks, measured time playing alone, co-operativley or alongside children.
  • + correlation, time spent in day care and co-operative playing with others.
  • Correlational study, no cause and effect. Contradicted by - correlation, DiLalla.
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Campell ET AL.

  • Compared Swedish who attended daycare betwee 18 months and 3 1/2 years and home-raised kids. Followed till 15.
  • Short days in nursery, more socially competent than home-raised. Social competence satys the same from 3 1/2-15.
  • Showed quality of day care affects aswell as time. Children assessed before daycare giving baseline to compare. Follow-up over years shows long-term effects of day care.
  • Under 3 1/2 in long day day care, more negative interactions, less socially competent.
  • Become tired and frustrated leading to more - interactions with others.
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Belsky

  • Longitudinal study, 1000 American kids followed by birth analysed.
  • Day care children, higher levels of problem behaviours (aggression to peers, disobedience to teachers + adults)
  • American day care low quality, less funded than Sweden. Support (Maccoby & Lewis) finding more hours correlated conflict with teachers. Interpretation that children from day care more confident and assertive.
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NICHD

  • Large sample, 4 1/2 years. Collected reports from parents, teachers, carers abour children.
  • More time spent in daycare, greater problem behaviours (disobedience, aggression)
  • Very large sample, more reliable. US, day care less funded. Reports from teachers, carers and parents make well rounded data on behaviour.
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Goldschmied & Jackson

  • Key-worker system: Key worker is named attatchment figure for small amount of children. Provides secure base (Bowlby)
  • Childminder should form attatchment with children in their care.
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Hazan and Shaver

  • Love quiz in the newspaper, including questions determining attachment type when younger and relationships now and feelings towards relationships
  • Proved Bowlby internal working model
  • Attatchment types can change from later experiences
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Kagan

  • Doesn't believe in attachment types but that babies born with temperament, eay, difficult or crabby.
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Dontas

  • Quality of emotional, physical care of institution affects as those allowed to form attachments with children do better.
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