- Created by: Georgiaeveritt
- Created on: 30-05-19 16:01
- Observable and measurable
- Controlled lab studies to maintain control and objectivity
- processes that govern learning is the same in humans and non humans
- classical conditioning- pavlovs dogs salivating when a bell was rung
- operant conditioning-operating on their environment, skinners pigeons
- Types of consequences- positive, negative and punishment
- Strength- scientific credibility- replicable, observable, control.
- Strength- real life application; token economy system in prisons and wards.
- Limitation- Mechanistic View- 'machine like responders', cognitive approach suggest more active role in individuals learning, more emphasis on emotions
- Limitation- Determinism; ignores influence of free will, skinner suggested it was an 'illusion'.
- Limitation- Ethical issues with animal research; stressful and aversive conditions. Validity?
Social Learning Theory
- Agrees with behaviourist approach that learning occurs through experience
- Learning also occurs through observation and imitation.
- Vicarious reinforcement- behaviour seen to be rewarded is more likely to be copied
- Mediational processes- attention , retention, motor reproduction and motivation
- Identification with role models is important- more likely to imitate behaviour of role model
- Bandura's reseach- Bobo doll
- Strength- Cognitive factors- store info on the behaviour- make judgements on actions.
- Limitation- evidence is provided by lab studies- demand characteristics of children.
- Limitation- biological factors- boys have higher levels of testosterone which links to aggression
- Strength- can account for cultural differences- explains how cultural norms are transmitted
- Strength- less determinist than the behaviourist approach, reciprocal determinism, free will.
- scientific study of mental processes-contrasts behaviourism
- role of inference- 'private' cannot be observed, make assumptions
- Theoretical models- information processing, sequence of stages (MSM)
- Computer models- Imitate the human mind- running programmes
- Schema- Packages of information, act as a mental framework.
- Strength- Uses scientific and objective methods- biology & cognitive psychology
- Strength- Application to real-life- artificial intelligence (robots)
- Strength- Less determinist- soft determinism, contrasts behaviourism, more flexible
- Limitation- Machine reductionism- ignores important aspects, like emotions.
- Limitation- lacks external validity- based on inference, use of artifical stimuli.
- Everything psychological is at first biological- biological structures; genes,nerves etc
- Genetic and neurochemical basis- inherited same was as physical characteristics- eye
- Mind and body are one- contrasts the cognitive approach
- Twin studies- MZ have a higher concordance rate.
- Genotype-genetic make up and phenotype- ways genes are expressed
- Strength- Scientific methods of investigation- precise, scanning techniques (fMRI's), drug trials
- Strength- Real life application- Psychoactive drugs- treat mental disorders, revolutionised Treat.
- Limitation- Concl. on Neurotransmitters- Assumptions, claims to have a cure when it is an asso.
- Limitation- Determinism- governed by internal biological causes, no control over- odds at L.S
- Limitation- Methodological Problem- separating nature and nurture, twins exposed to same environmental conditions (Confounding variable)
- mind is made up of; conscious, pre-conscious and unconscious
- Tripartite structure of personality; Id,ego and superego
- Psychosexual stages; Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital
- Oedipus Complex- Boys have an incestuous feeling towards mother. Electra Complex
- Defence Mechanisms- Repression, denial, displacement
- Strength- Explanatory power- explains wide range of behaviours, draws on childhood.Dominant
- Strength- Practical Applications- Therapy- Psychoanalysis, access to the unconscious mind.
- Limitation- Case Study Method- Little Hans, not possible to make universal claims, subjective
- Limitation- Untestable Concepts- Does not meet criteria of falsification, cannot be disproved
- Limitation- Psychic determinsm- behaviour is determined by unconsicous conflict in childhood, suggest we have no free will.
- Concept of free will is central- rejects scientific attempts to establsih human behaviour
- Maslow's hierachy- four defiency levels have to be met before reaching self-actualisation
- Focus on self- 'I' and 'me'
- Aim of therapy- establish congreuence between self and ideal self (personal growth)
- Conditions of worth may prevent personal growth- Lack of unconditional positive regard
- Rogers client -centred therapy; genuineness, empathy and unconditional positive regard
- Strength- Anti-reductionist, makes it more meaningful, advocate holism, may have more validity
- Strength- Positive image of the human condition- optimistic in comaprison to freud- 'slaves
- Limitation- Limited application- Rogerian therapy, lacks sound evidence, loose set of Abstract C
- Limitation- Untestable concepts- self actualisation is difficult to test. Roger introduced Q-sort
- Limitation- may be guilty of western cultural bias- associated with individualist cultures.
Origins of psychology
Origins of psychology
First psychology lab- Opened in Leipzig, Germany in 1879, with the aim to describe the nature of human consciouness, in a carefully controlled and scientific environment
Introspection-First systematic experimental attempt to study the mind by breaking up conscious awareness in the basic structures of thoughts, images and sensations- Structuralism
Standardised procedures-standardised instructions were given to all ppts- replicable
Significance-his work was significant as it marked the separation of modern scientfic psychology from its broder philisophical roots
Strength- Wundt's methods are scientific- controlled lab environment, standardised procedures
Limitation- some aspects are not scientific- self-reporting techniques were used to report 'private' mental processes, data is subjective, wouldnt meet the criteria of scientific enquiry
Emergence of psychology as a science
1900's- Early behaviourists rejected introspection- John B Watson argued that introspection was subjective, in that it varied from person to person
1930s- behaviourist scientific approach dominated psychology- BF skinner brought the language and rigour of the natural sciences into psychology. The behaviorists focus on learning and the use of carefully controlled lab studies.
1950's- Cognitive approach used scientific procedures to study mental processes. Following the congitive revolution of the 1960's the study of mental processes was seen as legitimate within psychology
1990's- The biological approach introduced technological advances. Biological psychologists have taken advanatge of recent advances in technology including scnning techniques