PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH

PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH KEY CONCEPTS

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DEFENCE MECHANISIMS

REPRESSION ----> this is when traumatic information is pushed into the unconcious mind e.g. a painful memory of abuse as a child is pushed down into the unconcious to protect ourseleves from the hurt.

DISPLACEMENT ----> when someone displaces their feelinf onto someone else. e.g. putting your feelings of guilt onto your close relative to make you feel better.

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FREUD'S IDEAS

  • Suggested that psychological development takes places in a series of fixed stages, each stage has a developmental task.
  • Libido in childhood does not represent sexual energy but mainifests itself as pleasure for different organ. at each stage children will show pleasure for a different organ.
  • Fixation: if trauma occurs the child becomes 'emotionally stuck' on the stage they are on and this affects their adult personality. Can also occur if too much / little gratification is given to the child or child holds pleasure from that stage.
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STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

ORAL:

  •  0-1 YEARS OLD. FIXATION ON THE MOUTH.
  • MOUTH PROVIDES COMFORT AND THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD IS THROUGH THE MOUTH.
  • THE CHILD AT THIS STAGE WILL PUT EVERYTHING THEY CAN IN THEIR MOUTH.
  • IF SUCCESSFUL WE TAKE DEPENDANCE, HELPLESSNESS, ACCEPTANCE AND ENJOYMENT OF FOOD AND DRINK.
  • FIXATION OCCURS IF; BABY IS SEPERATED FROM CARRER OR TOO MUCH/LITTLE GRATIFICATION AT THE BREAST.
  • EFFECTS; SMOKING, THUMB SUCKING, STUBBORNESS ETC.
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ANAL:

  • 0-3 YEARS OLD - PLEASURE IS THE ANUS
  • STARTS AT POTTY TRAINING
  • CHILD UNDERSTANDS IT'S A PERSON IN IT'S OWN RIGHT
  • THE CHILD AT THIS STAGE WILL ENJOY ANYTHING TO DO WITH THEIR ANUS- HOLDING IN AND LETTING OUT FAESES.
  • SUCCESSFUL; GIVES ASSERTIVENESS AND ORDER.
  • FIXATION OCCURS IF; EARLY OR HARSH POTTY TRAINING
  • LEADS TO :ANALLY RETENTIVE (TIDY) ANALLY EXPULSIVE (MESSY)
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PHALLIC- 

  • 3-6 YEARS OLD- PLEASURE FROM GENITALS.
  • MOST IMPORTANT STAGE IN DEVELOPMENT- LEARN YOUR GENDER.
  • CHILD BECOMES AWARE OF ITS GENDER AND THAT IT IS STARTING TO BE EXCLUDED FROM CERTAIN PARTS OF IT'S PARENTS LIFE.
  • THIS RESULTS IN THE CHILD GOING THROUGH EITHER THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX (BOYS) OR THE ELECTRA COMPLES (GIRLS).
  • CREATES A RIVALRY RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SAME SEX PARENT BECAUSE THEY ARE TRYING TO GAIN THE AFFECTION OF OPPOSITE SEX PARENT.
  • FIXATION: BEING VAIN AND OBESSED WITH LOOKS, HOMOSEXUAL IN LATER LIFE IF THEY DO NOT IDENTIFY WITH THE ROLES.

LATENCY: 6 YEARS OLD TO PUBERTY -  DEFENCE MECHANISIMS DEVELOP

GENITAL- ADOLESENTS  

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THEORY OF PERSONALITY

ID

  • DEVELOPS AT BIRTH
  •  BASED ON THE PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
  •  IS IN THE UNCONCIOUS MIND

EGO

  • -IS IN THE CONCIOUS MIND
  • BALANCES THE ID AND THE SUPEREGO
  • BASED ON THE REALITY PRINCIPLE

SUPEREGO

  • IS IN ALL OF THE STAGES OF MIND
  • BASED ON THE MORALITY PRINCIPLE
  • DEVELOPS IN THE PHALLIC STAGE- TAKING MORALS FROM THE PARENT YOU IDENTIFY WITH.
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GENDER REVELOPMENT

OEDIPUS COMPLEX:

  •  3-6 YEARS OLD BOYS IN THE PHALLIC STAGE
  • BOY FEELS SEXUAL DESIRES TOWARDS THEIR MOTHERS AND JEALOUSY AND HATRED OF THEIR FATHERS.
  • THEY DEVELOP CASTRATION FEAR AS THEY FEAR THEIR FATHER WILL FIND OUT ABOUT THEIR LOVE FOR THEIR MUM AND CUTT THEIR PENIS OFF AS A RESULT.
  • TO OVERCOME THIS THE BOY IDENTIFIES WITH THEIR FATHER AND 'BECOMES' HIM TAKING ON MORALS AND BEHAVIOUR AS A WAY TO GET MOTHERS AFFECTION.
  • EXAMPLE IS THE CASE STUDY OF LITTLE HANS.

ELECTRA COMPLES:

  • SIMILAR TO OEDIPUS COMPLES BUT FOR GIRLS.
  • THEY DEVELOP PENIS ENVY
  • WANT FATHERS AFFECTION
  • SO IDENTIFY WITH THEIR MUM THE SAME AS OEDIPUS COMPLEX
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