Psychodynamic approach

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 15-05-14 11:44

Definition of approach

  • says our behaviour is influenced by
  • unconcious mind
  • childhood experiences - root of psychological problems - e.g. fixation
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Assumption 1 - personality structure

  •  psyche = personality

ID

  • present from birth (oral stage)
  • selfish and irraional
  • pleasure principle
  • primative mind
  • source of libido (psychic energy)

EGO

  • develops 2-3 years (anal stage)
  • balancing act - resolves conflict
  • reality principle
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Assumption 1 - personality structure

SUPER EGO

  • 3-6 years (phallic stage)
  • morals and values
  • anxiety and guilt
  • perfection
  • morality principle

HEALTHY PSYCHE

  •  balanced ego

UNHEALTHY PSYCHE

  • dominant id = psychoses
  • dominatn super ego = neuroses
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Assumption 2 - mind structure

CONCIOUS

  •  small amount actvity
  • aware
  • thoughts and perceptions

PRECONCIOUS

  • aware if  wanted or tried
  • memories and stored knowledge

UNCONCIOUS

  • unaware of don't want to be aware
  • unacceptable sexual desires , fears, irrational wishes
  • repressed memories
  • access slips of tongue, dream analysis and free association

 

 

 

 

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Assumption 3 - defence mechanisms

DEFENCE MECHANISM

  •  unconcious strategy that protects concious from anxiety

REPRESSION

  • bury problem into unconcious to stop provoking anxiety
  • e.g. forget first seconds of car crash but not bump head

REGRESSION

  • refer back to child-like behaviour when under emotional pressure

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  • denial - refusal to accept or acknowledge problem
  • projection -  put ownproblem behaviour on someone else
  • displacement - channel problem into something else

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Assumption 4 - psychosexual stages of development

  •  parental behaviour crucial normal development
  • personality and mental health issues trace back to first 5 years (fixation)
  • people hedonistic - driven to seek pleasure by gratifying id's demands
  • source of pleasure - location of libido (life-force)
  • change stage location change
  • if fixated affects adult - energy used holds us back

ORAL STAGE

  • 0-1 yrs
  • focus mouth - sucking and swallowing
  • id
  • fixation: smoking, dependency, agression

 

 

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Assumption 4 - psychosexual stages of development

ANAL STAGE

  • 1 -3 years
  • focus on ****
  • witholding and expelling faeces
  • ego development
  • fixation: tidy/untidy, oranised/unoraganise

PHALLIC STAGE

  • 3-6years
  • focus on genitals
  • oedipus and electra complex
  • superego develops
  • fixation: vanity, sexual anxiety and homosexuality
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Assumption 4 - psychosexual stages of development

LATENCY STAGE

  •  6 years- puberty
  • no sexual motivation
  • focus on same sex friendships

GENITAL STAGE

  • puberty
  • focus on genitals
  • sexual intercourse
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Assumption 5 - Oedipus & Electra complex

  • occurs phallic stage (3-6 years)
  • boys unconcious sexual desire to marry mum and kill dad
  • fears dad find out - anxiety - castration fear
  • copy and identify with dad including gender appropriate behaviour
  • resolve complex and feelings

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  • occurs phallic stage (3-6 years)
  • anxiety - penis envy - blame mum
  • love for dad ****** and envious - wants her own penis
  • copy and identify with mum - learn gender appropriate behaviour
  • resolve complex and feelings
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Explanation of gender development evaluation

FOR: SUPPORTING RESEARCH

  • Little Hans - fear horses- looke like dad- oedipus complex
  • Anna O - acknowledge repressed memory of dog licking glass - recover from not drinking watermelon
  • low generalisablity - neurotic, Austrian, middle class women -
  • low reliability - individual case studies - not repeatable 
  • Little Hans - isolated case study - parents gave more info (reterospective)
  • subjectivity - interpretation of Freuds case studies (free association, etc)
  • unreliable and unscientific - concepts not measurable and not easily tested

APPLICATION

  • new treatments for mental illnesses - less barbaric than spinning chair
  • Tavistock clinic - therapy - psychoanalysis

 

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Explanation of gender development evaluation

AGAINST: RESEARCH

  • Malinowski - islanders no dad figure - Freud said not resolve oepdius complex then homosexual - but heterosexual

ALTERNATIVE THEORIES

  • Erikson - psychosexual stages until death - Freud stops at adolescence
  • biological approach - nature -hormones -genes-brain lateralisation
  • learn approach - nurture -operant conditioning - social learning
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Methodology - general case studies and evaluation

  • study 1 person or small group on characteristic
  • use lots research methods : observations , questionnaires , interviews
  • triangulation - pool all data - look for common themes and trends

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  • valid - rich detail from variety research methods - lots data - whole picture
  • valid - direct data - gathered in natural setting - ecological validty
  • low reliability and generalisability- unique - not repeatable - not representative
  • subjective interpretation
  • ethics - confidentiality
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Methodology - Freud case study evaluation

  • wanted to make unconcious thoughts concious, deal with them
  • used as treatment and research method

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  • dream analysis - analyst listens to content of analysand's dream and applies concepts to explain them - manifest content = dream - latent content = meaning
  •  free association - say what comes to mind with no censoring - analyst finds connection unrevealing unconcious thoughts
  • slips of the tongue - say one thing but mean another - repressed memories revealed - underlying sexual meaning

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  • different methods -uncover unconcious wishes not accesible by normal means
  • research method and therapy - info and cure
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Methodology - Freud case study evaluation

  • unique ways uncover unconcious cause of disorder
  • subjective interpretation - not scientific
  • not repeatable - low reliability of method
  • concepts not measurable

HIGH CREDIBILITY

  • Tavistock clinic - therapies in UK and US still - psychoanalysis
  • concepts still used

LOW CREDIBILITY

  • Mason - power of analyst means patient accept possible wrong interpretation
  • gender bias against women
  • overemphasises sexual matters - transference - patients feeling transfered to analyst
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Methodology - longitudinal

  • follow one p. or more over time
  • interviews , experiments, observations
  • e.g. child of our time

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  • developmental trends - track changes
  • same p. - no p. variables
  • hard keep all p. - drop out - bias sample  and results
  • researcher moves away - hard maintain study

 

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Methodology - cross sectional

  • opposite of longitudinal 
  • cross section of population and results compared
  • e.g. personality development 5yrs, 10yrs,15 yrs, 20yrs

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  • cheap and quick- only study one time - more practical
  • more ethical - once for each participant that following them long time
  • different p. compared- p. variables- less reliable
  • low control over extraneous variables - different backgrounds and environments
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Methodology - correlations

  • 1 p. and 2 measures 
  • (e.g. grade and attendence)
  • positive  = both go up
  • negative = one up, one down

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  • straightforward - 2 variables and test
  • hilight new areas for research - unsuspected relationship uncovered
  • no cause effect shown - just relationship - no predicitability - co vary by chance
  • low validity 1 measure - artificial - operationalised variable
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Practical - Correlation strictness/ tidiness

AIM:

  • test if corelaltion between parental strictness and tidiness

BACKGROUND:

  • parents too strict anal stage cause child anally retentive (tidy) - Freud

METHOD:

  • correlation (relationship) and ordianal data - inferential statistics (chance) - Spearman's 
  • self report data
  • 8 closed questions /  4 tideiness and 4 strictness 
  • 5 point likert scale rating
  • participant design is  
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Spearman's Correlation Co-efficent

  • observed value - result you found - compared to critical value in table
  • critical value - table by mathematicians test if result significant or not
  • p less than or equal to (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/maths/images/lessthaneq.png) 0.05 or 0.01 - probability or likelihood results duen to chance is less than or equal to 5 or 1 %
  • might need to look at table one or two tailed (directional / non-directional)
  •  N = number of participants
  • the observed value must be greater than critical value to be significant
  • result not significant - accept null hypotheses , reject alternative
  • result significant reject null, accept alternative hypotheses
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Practical - Correlation strictness/ tidiness

PROCEDURE

  • brief, confidentiality, consent , right to withdraw
  • give paper to fill in
  • debrief and thank
  • likert scale results
  • scatter graph

RESULTS

  • rho value = 0.4 is less than critical value for 10 particpants at 5% level of 0.564
  • weak postive correlation
  • not significant

CONCLUSION

  • result not significant - accept null hypotheses - does not support Freud's theory
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Practical - Correlation strictness/tidiness

GENERALISABILITY:

  • 10 p. - small sample
  • Portsmouth/ Southampton residents - ethnocentric

RELIABILITY

  • standardised procedure - repeat - same for everyone
  • low qualitative / open question - difficult repeat - answer differently

APPLICATION

  • psychoanalysics - treatment for mental illness - successful - Tavistock clinic - less barbaric than (spinning chair)
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Practical - Correlation parental strictness and ti

VALIDITY

  • self report - bias - potential to lie
  • open questions - qualitative - acess views - increase depth
  • closed questions - quantitiative data - restrict answers - reduce depth
  • answer natural environment

ETHICS

  • all done
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Study in detail - Little Hans by Freud

AIM

  •  treat 5yr old boy of horse phobia

METHOD/PROCEDURE

  • case study - dream analysis
  • Freud met Hans twice -rest of info Hans dad (Freud fan)

DESCRIPTION THEMES

1.   dream his penis (widlers) and wiping other kids bums - denied interest - told off by mum

2. Wanted dad go away on buisness and dead-jealous of mum bathing sister- drown her

3. Afraid white horses bite - heard girl told off  - balck horses mouths and eye shields - saw fall down

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Study in detail - Little Hans by Freud

4. Played dolls 'his kids' - his mum was kids mum- his dad was grandad

ANALYSIS OF THEMES

1.   repression of unwanted desires into unconcious(penis) and pleasure at anal stage (enjoyed it himself)

2. enjoyed with and having mum's attention - desire - oedipus complex

3. fear of father  glasses and moustaches of adult  men (black horse) - told of playing Widdler (white horse) - oedipus complex and castration fear

4. resolved oedipus complex - cure (no phobia) - copy dad 

CONCLUSION

  • evidence of psychosexual stages and gender development (oedipus complex)
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Study in detail - Little Hans by Freud

GENERALISABILITY

  • case study one child - not generalisable to other kids or adults
  • ethnocentric - Austrain
  • andocentric - male

RELIABILITY

  • few controls - not repeated
  • no standardised questions - not repeated
  • subjective interpretation - others interpret differently (bad horse experience)
  • no more studies of support

APPLICATION

  • focus sexual matters and unconcious influences - psychoanalysis development
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Study in detail - Little Hans by Freud

VALIDITY

  • high ecological - talked freely to dad - data valid - collected natural environment

ETHICS

  • confidentiality - pseudo name - later identified
  • consent - u16-parental consent

SUBJECTIVITY

  • interpretation - ignored other reasons for phobia (collapse)
  • data bias - Hans father - fan of Freud - included stuff fit with Freud theory
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Other study in detail - Axline's play therapy for

AIM

  • cure 5yr old boy shyness/ withdrawn

METHOD

  • case study

PROCEDURE

  • play therapy over several months

DESCRIPTION OF THEMES

1. No questions asked by Axline

2. Dibs phobia locked doors

3.  Dibs hated dad - toy soldier buried in sand


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Other study in detail - Axline's play therapy for

4. burning house released toy family

5. Dibs didn't speak, showed gifted child

6. Play therapy successful - toys represent family and home situations

ANALYSIS OF THEMES

1. toy soldier - hatred dad- work through anger in play - oedipus complex

2. locked doors - dad locked him in room

3. mum tested and mentally stimulate more than emotional support - silent and gifted - id not satisfied

4. play therapy - express himself with no questions - play as wanted to work through issues - ego could balance



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Other study in detail - Axline's play therapy for

5. release of burning house - superego dominant - felt guilt for putting them in

CONCLUSION

  • Dibs unbalanced psyche (personality) - superego dominant - neurotic
  • used play to work through issues and id balance
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Other study in detail - Axline's play therapy for

GENERALISABILITY

  • unique case study of one child 
  • ethnocentric - American
  • andocentric - boy

RELIABILITY

  • few controls- not repeated
  • subjective interpretation - no psychodynamic concepts

APPLICATION

  • play therapy success - used today to help kids with issues

VALIDITY

  • case study - depth detail
  • natural behaviour of play
  • unatural being observed
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Other study in detail - Axline's play therapy for

ETHICS

  • confidentiality - pseudo name upheld
  • consent - u16 - parental consent
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Key Issue - False memory and repression

DESCRIBE:

  • cases of undergoing analysis and 'remeber' traumatic events of early childhood
  • might not always be real - ases of false memory of traumatic event
  • false memories torn families apart and led to court cases
  • true memories of abuse uncovered
  • e.g. Beth Rutherford

EXPLAIN:

  • the mind has 3 parts - unconcious
  • wgo has defence mechanisms - repression
  • psychosexual development
  • recovering rpressed memories - dream analysis, slip of the togue and free association
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Key Issue - False memory and repression

TRUE:

  • mind 3 parts - therapy aims uncover unconcious(biggest)  thoughts - use energy and prevent moving forward
  • unconciouswhere repressed memeories go - defence mechanism of unconcious strategy to protect ego from anxiety of traumatic event
  • therapist use research methods of D.A, SoT, F.A to access unconcious
  • D.A - analyst listens to  analysands dream- anlaysand listens to interpretation - insight into problems to move them into concious- go away
  • therapist interested first 5 years -  psychological problems from
  • therpaist look issues in oral, anal and phallic stage - fixation need understandf to cure neuroisis ,etc. 
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Key Issue - False memory and repression

FALSE:

  • memories come from analyst's interpretation and false
  • memories suggested by analyst and not deliberatley
  • placebo effect - feel better once meory revelaed even if traumatic or no true

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e.g. Beth Rutherford- false meory syndrome

  • underwent analysis at request father - depressed
  • few sessions no problem - analyst ask abuse and more detail - talked about isssues - interpreted abuse
  • Beth reads about abuse, dreams about abuse , more interpretation of abuse 
  • investigation - virgin - recovered false memories - stress to family and Beth 

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  • concepts unscientific - appear better doesn't mean memory true
  • concepts not measurable - unconcious,etc -doesn't mean approach wrong


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