The psychdynamic approach was brought around by Freud. He said made four assumptions;
1. Much of our behaviour is driven by unconcious motives.
2. Childhood is a critical period in development.
3. Mental disorders arise from unresolved, unconcious conflicts from childhood.
4. Resolution occurs through assessing and coming to terms with ideas and conflicts.
There are three key elements to this theory;
1. Structure of personality (ID, Superego, Ego)
2. The defence mechanisms in place.
3. Psychosexual stages.
The ID is the first structure of personality. It is present at birth, such as in the case of a newborn baby as it is selfish. The consequence of a strong ID is becoming selfish, out of control and eventually could be become a psychopath.
The Ego is second. This develops by the age of 3 as the child ceomes more aware thta other people have feelinga and they realise they can't always get what they want. The consequences of a weak ego is it allows the ID to dominate.
The Superego comes last. This appears around the age of 5 when a sense or morality is passed on through the parents and the child internalises this. If the superego is too strong, the consequences could be a strict, anxious and obsessive personality resulting in disorders.
Displacement - You redirect your feelings to another target - blaming other people.
Regression - You revert back to old, immature behaviour - Going back to a place and behaviour that reflects your childhood.
Reaction formation - Turning the feelings into the opposite - Instead of being sad, being happy.
The Oral Stage.
Birth to 18 months.
Pleasure gained from oral activies such as sucking and eating.
Weaning is how the stage is complete.
The Anal Stage.
18 months - 3 years.
Pleasure gained from passing of faeces.
Being potty trained is the sign of completion.
The Oedipus Complex.
3 years - 5 years.
Rivalry between same sex child and parent for attention of the opposite sex parent.
By resolving issues the stage can be completed.
The Latency Stage
6 years - Puberty.
Social relationships - no psychosexual stages.
There is no requirments to complete the stage.
The Genital Stage
Puberty - Adulthood.
The genitals are the focus is pleasure.
All earlier stages must be completed in order to complete the final stage.
- Deterministic - says that God, fate, evolution determines our behaviour, not by nuture or influence.
- Does not consider adult experiences.
- Blames the parents if a stage is not completed.