Psychodynamic Approach

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The psychdynamic approach was brought around by Freud. He said made four assumptions;

1. Much of our behaviour is driven by unconcious motives.

2. Childhood is a critical period in development.

3. Mental disorders arise from unresolved, unconcious conflicts from childhood.

4. Resolution occurs through assessing and coming to terms with ideas and conflicts.

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There are three key elements to this theory;

1. Structure of personality (ID, Superego, Ego)

2. The defence mechanisms in place.

3. Psychosexual stages.

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The ID is the first structure of personality. It is present at birth, such as in the case of a newborn baby as it is selfish. The consequence of a strong ID is becoming selfish, out of control and eventually could be become a psychopath.

The Ego is second. This develops by the age of 3 as the child ceomes more aware thta other people have feelinga and they realise they can't always get what they want. The consequences of  a weak ego is it allows the ID to dominate.

The Superego comes last. This appears around the age of 5 when a sense or morality is passed on through the parents and the child internalises this. If the superego is too strong, the consequences could be a strict, anxious and obsessive personality resulting in disorders.

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Defence Mechanisms.

Displacement - You redirect your feelings to another target - blaming other people.

Regression - You revert back to old, immature behaviour - Going back to a place and behaviour that reflects your childhood.

Reaction formation - Turning the feelings into the opposite - Instead of being sad, being happy.

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The Oral Stage.

Birth to 18 months.

Pleasure gained from oral activies such as sucking and eating.

Weaning is how the stage is complete.

The Anal Stage.

18 months - 3 years.

Pleasure gained from passing of faeces.

Being potty trained is the sign of completion.

The Oedipus Complex.

3 years - 5 years.

Rivalry between same sex child and parent for attention of the opposite sex parent.

By resolving issues the stage can be completed.

The Latency Stage

6 years - Puberty.

Social relationships - no psychosexual stages.

There is no requirments to complete the stage.

The Genital Stage

Puberty - Adulthood.

The genitals are the focus is pleasure.

All earlier stages must be completed in order to complete the final stage.

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Evaluational Points.

 - Unscientific

 - Deterministic - says that God, fate, evolution determines our behaviour, not by nuture or influence.

 - Does not consider adult experiences.

 - Blames the parents if a stage is not completed.

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