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SCHAFFER AND EMERSON- GLASGOW BABIES

-lonigtudinal study to find out about development of attachment: over period of 2 years

- followed 60 infants

- working class area

- infants observed every 4 weeks until age of 1, then again at 18 months

MEASURED IN 2 WAYS:

SEPARATION PROTEST: infant left in room/left alone with other people/left in pram outside house/ left in pram outside shops/ left in cot at night/ put down after being held by an adult/ passed whilst sitting in cot/pram

STRANGER ANXIETY: researcher started every visit by approaching infant until it showed signs of distress/whimpered

BOTH SIGNS ATTACHMENT HAVE BEEN FORMED

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WHAT DID THEY FIND?

-half ot the children showed first sign of attachment between 6-8 months

-developed fear of strangers a month later

- largely attached infants: mothers responded quickly/ large amounts of interaction

-weakly attached: mothers didn't interact

EVALUATION:

POSITIVE: one of the biggest longitudinal studies of infant attachment/ even though it was conducted 35 years ago

NEGATIVE;criticisms to methodology/ data collection- mostly direct observation/ collected by mother- inaccurate?

NEGATIVE: mothers may have felt need to manufacture results BUT more ecological validity than lab studies e.g. strange situation

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TYPES OF ATTACHMENT

STRONG: - healthy cognitive and emotional development

-optimal type of attachment/ child can act independently- carer= secure base

- infant is distressed in caregivers absence

- content when they return

INSECURE: 2 TYPES:

RESISTANT: insecure in presence of carer

-distressed when they leave

-resists contact

-wary of strangers

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AVOIDANT: -

- infant doesn't seek contact with carer

-shows little distress when seperated

- avoids contact with carer on their return

- treats stranger same way

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STRANGE SITUATION

-AIMS: investigate individual variation in infant attachments

PROCEDURE: -Test last for 20 minutes

- american infants

- controlled observation

- EIGHT STEPS:

1) parent, infant play

2) parent sits while infant plays

3) stranger enters and talks to parent

4)parent leaves, infant plays, stranger offers comfort

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5) parent returns, greets infant, stranger leaves

6) parents leaves

7) stranger enters, offers comfort

8) parent enters, offers comfort

- there are 2 seperations and 2 reunions

-seperation protest, infants willingness to explore, stranger anxiety and reaction to reunion are the key behaviours used to assess the security of the attachment relationship

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WHAT DID THE STRANGE SITUATION FIND?

- most toddlers displayed secure attachment (70%)

- 10%= anxious, resistant

- 20%= anxious, avoidant

CONCLUSION:

- strange situation is a good measure of attachment, allows us to distinguish between the different types

- concluded secure attachment is preffered

- links secure attachment to maternal responsiveness

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EVALUATION OF STRANGE SITUATION

POSITIVE:

-confirmed as useful

- reliable, if same child was tested, same results

- valid, securely attached infants seem to do better/ better adjusted

NEGATIVE:

- can't be generalised, likely to reflect norms and values of american culture

-artificial, may distort behaviour, they know they're being observed

- ethics are questionable, mothers/babies may become distressed/anxious

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STRANGE SITUATION TYPES OF ATTACHMENT

SECURE ATTACHMENT:

- willingness to explore, uses carer as secure base

-shows distress when carer leaves

-70% show this

INSECURE RESISTANT ATTACHMENT:

-remains close to mother, shows insecurity

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INSECURE AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT:

- infant shows little or no concern when mother leaves/ little pleasure when she returns

-can be comforted/ calmed down by stranger as well as mother

-shows little preference between mother and stranger/ often avoids both

-20% showed this type

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CULTURAL VARIATION IN ATTACHMENT

- American children mostly secure (71%) Anxious/resistant (12%) Avoidant (17%)

-German children, secure (40%) resistant (11%) avoidant (49%)

German children often taught to be independent/not clingy

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VAN IJZENDOORN AND KROONENBERG CROSS CULTURAL

PROCEDURE:

-used results of 32 studies that had been used in strange situation

- used research from 8 different countries

FINDINGS: 

- secure, most common in all cultures

- Western had more avoidant insecure attachments

- non western had more dominant insecure 

CONCLUSIONS:

- consistency in attachment leads to conclusion that there may be universal characteristics than underpin infant/ caregivers actions

-variations show universality is limited

-significant differences question validity of strange situation

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EVALUATION

-great variation shows its wrong to think of any culture as a whole. Be careful not to generalise results and assume one culture consists of same practices

-need to consider sub cultures, oversimplified to view britain or america as 1 single culture

-not representative of what they're meant to be, but of the sub cultures

-strange situation was created and tested in usa- ethnocentric, culturally biased: only reflects norms of usa

-SS lacks ecological and population validity

POSITIVES: 

-only test of infant attachment thats been used in other countries

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BOWLBYS THEORY OF ATTACHMENT

-Influenced by an evolutionary theory, believed attachment was an inate response, which evolved and served to promote survival in several ways:

safety- keeps child in close proximity

emotional relationships- teaches infant to form relationships. internal working model: a blueprint for all future relationships

secure base-fundemental for childs cognitive development

social releasers-bowlby argued it was innate and reciprocal. infant communicated through crying etc, results in parent showing affection

monotropy- relationship between child and carer is special/ unique

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EVALUATION OF BOWLBY

POSITIVE: - extremely influential

-idea of monotropy supported via cross cultural studies

-support for idea of social releasers

NEGATIVES:- IWM criticised, some children may just form relationships easier, better- not proof

-monotropy: what about multiple attachments?

-basis on evolutionary argument, not been possible to prove thats innate

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DEPRIVATION AND PRIVATION

-occurs when child is attached but then becomes separated

-short term: when infants are usually in day care/ carer has short stay in hospital etc

-long term: one parent gets custody etc

MATERNAL DEPRIVATION HYPOTHESIS: BOWLBY argues if main attachment bond is broken in early years (up to 3 years) adverse effect on childs emotional, social and cognitive development

EVALUATION:NEGATIVES-

-Rutter said Bowlby had assumed all types of deprivation were the same

-children may experience separation without bond disruption/substitute maternal care

-may never have formed attachments

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- theory was not representative, vast majority of thiefs were not referred to clinics for treatment

- relied very much on mothers and songs, it could have inaccuracies

POSITIVE: - appears to support maternal deprivation hypothesis, idea that deprivation in earlier life results to psyc/ behavioural problems

RESULTS: bowlby diagnosed 32% of theives as affectionless psychopaths

-86% categorised as that had experienced maternal seperation before the age of 5

-only 17% not categorised had suffered maternal seperation

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PRIVATION- hodges and tizzard

-investigate permanence of long term effects of privation

- tried to prove negative effects of privation could be reversed

-disprove bowlbys claim that maternal deprivation would cause permanent emotional damage

PROCEDURES:

-65 children formed opportunity sample

- natural experiment, using a matched pairs design- insitutionalised children compared with a control group of children raised at home

-longitudinal study, age of entering care to 16

- by age of 4, 24 had been adopted, 15 restored, rest remained

- assessed at ages 4, 8 and 16 on social competence

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FINDINGS: -age of 4 children hadn't formed deep relationships, they were highly attention seeking

- By age 8, significant differences between adopted and restored children

-most adopted and restored children had formed close relationships with their caregivers and were as attached as control group. at school, very attention seeking, tended to be unpopular

- 16, adopted children were closely attached with adoptive parents, whereas restored children and parents, bond fragmented. Less likely to be part of a group/bully behaviour

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CONCLUSIONS OF HODGES AND TIZZARD

-early privation had a negative effect on the ability of some of the children to form relationships outside of the home

-some privation effects are long lasting

-suggests a need for research in to why adopted children do better than restored

EVALUATION:NEGATIVE-

-drop off of study left a biased sample

-this may have distorted difference between adopted and restored children

- because of this may lack validity, reduces meaningfulness and generalisability

-IV cannot be manipulated, cause and effect not inferred

-misleading to assume restored children will always show less social adjustement

- considerable individual differences within each group

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