PSYA2 - Stress Studies

Stress

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Holmes and Rahe - SRRS

Nat exp, Vol samp, Ind grps

-5000 medical records and identified 43 life changes

-396 participants rated stress factor compared to marriage at 50

  • High SRRS score - greater chance of illness
  • Chance of becoming ill within two years:
  • 50% if more than 200
  • 80% if more than 300
  • Both positive and negative life changes cause stress.
  • Weakened immune system due to release of stress hormones

-> Mundane Realism

-> Evaluation Apprehension

-> Population Validity

-> Psychological Harm

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Rahe et al - NAVY

Nat exp, Vol samp, Ind grps

- 2500 Navy personnel did SRRS over last 6 months

- Followed up over seven months of tour

- Stress related illness recorded and rated for severity

- SRRS scores compared to illness score

  • Weak but significant correlation
  • Personell with top 30% significantly more illness than others
  • 80% more chance of illness if over 300
  • Weakened immune system due to realease of stress hormones

-> Population Validity

-> Evaluation Apprehension

-> Difficulty in establishing cause and effect

-> Informed Consent

2 of 8

Kanner - daily hassles and uplifts

Nat exp, Vol samp, Ind grps

- List of 117 daily hassles and uplifts

- 100 Californian participants rate those experienced in past month

  • Hassles a more accurate predictor of psych illness compared to SRRS
  • Those with high number of hassles most at risk of psych illness
  • Uplifts had significant effect in increasing anxiety in women but not men
  • Weakened immune system due to stress hormones

-> Difficulty in establishing cause and effect

-> Population Validity

-> Retrospective Self Report

-> Psychological Harm

3 of 8

Delongis et al

Nat exp, Vol samp, Ind grps

- completed daily hassles and uplifts every month for a year

- Also completed the SRRS

- Illness was recorded

  • Daily hassles and uplifts could predict health:
  • higher number of daily hassles = more at risk of developing stress related illness
  • Higher number of daily uplifts = less at risk of developing psych illness
  • Stronger correlation than SRRS
  • Long term stress response weakens immune system

-> Difficulty in establishing cause and effect

-> Retrospective Self Report

-> Evaluation Apprehension

-> Informed Consent

4 of 8

Marmot - workplace stress

Nat exp, Vol samp, Ind grps

- 7,000 male and female civil service employees aged 35-55

- Followed for 5 years and all free from heart problems at start

- Level of control measured by self report questionnaire and independent assessments two times

- Recorded those who developed heat disease and other stress related illnesses

  • Low grade employees (low demands+low control) - 4X more likely to die of heart attack than high grade (high demands+high control)
  • Low grade employees (low demands+low control) also more likely to develop other stress related illnesses
  • Low control is associated with high levels of stress

-> Experimenter Bias

-> Difficulty in establishing cause and effect

-> Informed Consent


5 of 8

Johansson - sawmill workers

Nat exp, Vol samp, Ind grps

- Compared stress levels in two groups of swedish sawmill workers:

:Finishers (high demands+low control) and cleaners (low demands+high control)

- Measured adrenaline and noradrenaline on work days and rest days

- Recorded absenteeism and stress related illness

  • Adrenaline and Noradrenaline higher on work days
  • Finishers had highest levels of stress hormones, highest absenteeism and highest number of stress illnesses
  • Finishers showed highest biological stress response shown by the release of stress hormones
  • Karasek argued low control and high demands is most stressful and creates job strain

->Ease of Operationalisation

-> Informed Consent

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Friedman and Rosenhan - personality

Nat exp, Vol samp, Ind grps

- 3454 Californian men classed as Type A or Type B through structured interviewed:

- Asked a series of questions relating to type A and B, noted down behavioral signs of type A, and finally interrupted to observe reaction

- Then followed for 8.5 years and health and illness recorded

  • During 8.5 years 257 men sufferent from CHD
  • 69% were type A, 31% type B
  • Type A more likely to suffer CHD as they create their own stress
  • Increase heart rate and blood pressure due to release of stress hormones

-> Population Validity

-> Internal Validity

-> Right to withdraw

-> Psychological Harm

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Kobassa - personality

Nat exp, Vol samp, Ind grps

- 800 middle class, white, male managers

- Completed 3 questionnaires: personality questionnaire, SRRS and measure of illness over three years

- Put into two groups, ill more than average and ill less than average

  • Those who were ill less than average showed same cluster of personality factors: CONTROL, COMMITMENT and CHALLENGE
  • This is known as hardiness and an individual is known as hardy and can cope with stress in a better way

-> Retrospective Self Report

-> Population Validity

->Informed Consent


8 of 8

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