- Cromwell wanted Godly reformation, legal reforms and to keep or disband the army. Instrument of gov drawn up 1653 by Lambert. single person rule as executive with powers that were limited and definied Lord Protector. Toleration for all except Catholics. Voters had to have £200 of property, royalists not allowed for 4 Ps. P of 460 mps called every 3 years. Crom can veto legislation.
1654 - commission of Triers, allowed variation in chruch accepted ministers of their quality as ministers not their beliefs, jews were allowed. First protectorate P republican opposition, no royalists dissolved 1655 due to opposition. Crom forced MPs to sign 'recognition' saying crom was lord protector, 100 refused.
1655 - Penruddock's rising, royalist rising. Crom imprisoned Cony's lawyers who took crom to court saying custom duties were illegal. Major-generals introduced hugely hated **** fighting horse racing, had control over people in their region 'england under military control' army governing.
1656 - Second P james nayler case pretended to be jesus on donkey, wasnt killed thanks to crom.
1657 - Sindercombe plot, leveller tried to kill Crom as he didnt get to vote, people started to think about after croms dead. Major generals ended due to decimation bill rejected. Humble petition and advice presented to P, army officers as would limit power and republicans not happy, peole wanted monarchy back. Petition by 100 army officers, crom accepted revised HP&A, house of C and L back LP for life could name sucessor.
Crom foreign policy
1658 - crom died Richard named successor.
- 1657 Admiral Blake destroyed spanish treasure fleet destroying spains war effort against Portugal and france. Also attacked Barbary pirates to protect english trade.
- Peace with Dutch, dutch agreed to not help Charles II, dutch agreed to accept english sovereignty in the channel. Treaty with France helped Piedmont massacre 1655.
- war with Spain cost Crom £1m a year so had to keep calling P. Spain were defeated in battle of Dunes, france gave us port of dunkirk, but cost a lot to maintain and wasnt good for trade.
- Failed expedition to Hispaniola. God let Crom down, embarrassing.
rule of major generals sharpened fears of military dictatorship while the nayler case hightened dangers of radical beliefs.
Richard resigned in 1659 leaving the ruling to the rump of 1649 which proclaimed the commonwealth was back. ' i will not have a drop of blood spilt for the preservation of my greatness, which is a burden to me'.
- 3rd protecterate P met 1659, talked about reducing army and local militia. Army council met again. Officers petition to protector, Fleetwood tells Rich he cant garentee army support, Rich dissolves P. Army leaders recalled rump. Rich retired.
- Rump purged moderates (supporters of Protector) and promoted replublicans in the army (didn't want crom in charge) and Quakers in local gov ( religious radicals). Booths rising in cheshire moderate uprising. Lambert defeated booth and presbyterian P (rich). Lambert not liked as key advisor to Crom and supported major generals. Army petitioned for reform and 9 leaders including fleetweood were dismissed.
- Army stopped P from meeting, Monck (didnt care about politics) declared for Rump. Committee of safety set up maintained some form of gov, members of army. Lambert marched north to confront monck men 'melted away' demoralised as not paid. Anti-army riots in London. Navy declared for Rump. Fleetwood recalled rump.
- Monck was ordered to put down anti-army riots, recieved loads of petitions for free . He recalled MPs excluded in 1648, which provided royalist majority. Convention P opened. Declaration of Breda sent to P. Said would rule with P, promised harmony and no reconciliation, no punishments for actions during war, toleration, settlement of outstanding issues. he didnt sign any terms though. P voted gov was by king lords and commons 1659 may 25th Charles II landed at dover, huge welcome.
why did the restoration happen?
- Barriers: Cromwells, NMA, dutch and french.
People didn't want Charles II because: Crom had given freedom to P and toleration he was also sucessful and stayed until he died, Scared he might have another personal rule, bought up as Arminian mum was Catholic
- Cromwellian gov not able to please army and gentry. 'caught in a pincer' gentry wanted disbanded army and lower taxes, army not happy so set up Army council and set up rump.
- Widespread support for monarchy, noone wanted to execute king, excise tax, major generals, Charles as Martyr, NMA involvement in politics.
- Crom died. Richard was very weak, retired for money, wasnt army general so fights between A & P.
- Collapse of army unity. allowed Monck to win, demoralised due to no pay, Lambert wouldn't have allowed monarchy.
- Monck. Bought purged peeps back. Long P dissolved, convention P opened king could return.
- Declaration of Breda. Showed P they had nothing to fear. Final turning point. Rule with P, toleration, settlement of issues, indemnity.
The Restoration settlement
1660 - monarchy and church of England restored. Bishops back. Crom pride and ireton are executed. Convention P vote him T&P £1,200,000 and he gives up fuedal tenures set up by monck. Reinstated the navigation act, causes war in 65.
1661 - Venner's rising, fifth monarchist, killed loads of people, backlash against puritans. Savoy conference toleration for everyone but catholics and puritans - baptists quakers independants. Cavalier P began, new elections, royalists no puritans wanted revenge on them. C.C Corporation act excluded from local gov those who didn't take Anglican communion, stopped puritan influence in politics. Militia act made king commander in chief of army. C.C act against tumultuos petitioning of more than 10 people. Charles increased size of privy council to 120 to incorporate different factions.
1662 - C.C quakers act made quakers take oath of alligience. C.C Licensing act reintroduced censorship. C.C act of uniformity meant presbyterians couldnt stay in church 25% of parish clergy gone. Hearth tax on fireplaces and ovens T&P not enough for king only bought in 1/3 of expected. Vane was executed as had lots of followers as he wrote books about being republican. Lambert arrested for trying to raise rebellion in 1660. Clarendon sold dunkirk back to french, some people felt crom was better as he didn't sell it. Clarendon arranged Charles' marriage to Catherine of Braganza (portugal) catholic, people werent too fussed, hated Puritans more.
1663 - P rejected dispensing act proposed by C so he could stop Clarendon code, gave C too much power, made him a liar, declaration of breda.
1664 - Triennial act replaced with weaker version, meant king could choose to call P every 3 years.
1665 - C.C 5 mile act against ex-clergy and unlicensed preachers, couldnt live 5 miles of a parish. Plague broke out, God not happy. Second anglo-dutch war as england started stopping dutch ships to search them.
1666 -France and denmark entered war against England powerful countries! English won St. James day battle in mouth of thames close to london! Dutch sailed up the Medway and attacked the english fleet towed flagship, embarrassing, didnt happen when crom was in charge. Great fire of London more punishing from god.
1667 - Clarendon forced to resign, he was blammed for everything. Charles II, buckingham and other courtiers sought impeachment of Clarendon, House of Lords refused so Clarendon fled.
Declaration of Breda meant that P couldn't negotiate with C and lay down terms of his return so was effectively unconditional. reconciliation - Convention P. Revenge - Cavalier P. Didn't settle problems that caused war and revolution. Failed to solve old problems but also created new ones with Puritans.