- Created by: Millie
- Created on: 02-04-15 15:50
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Cells include bacteria and blue-green algae
Eukaryotic Cells include plant and animal cells
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles, whilst prokaryotes do not. Eukaryotic DNA is found in the nucleus and is linear, whilst prokaryotes have circular DNA which is found free in the cytoplasm (it is sometimes known as a ring of DNA).
Animal cells; nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, rough ER, smooth ER, Golgi body, vesicles, lysosomes, ribosomes, cytoplasm, centrioles, cell surface membrane.
Plant cells; nucleus,nucleolus , large permanant vacuole surrounded by a to oblast, cytoplasm, mitochondria, rough ER,smooth ER, Golgi body, vesicles, amylopectin containing starch grains, cell wall, cell membrane, chloroplasts containing chlorophyll, ribosomes, middle lamella, plasmodestmata, pits.
Animal cells have no cell walls, plants have cell walls made of cellulose, and fungi-(which also come under the category of eukaryotic cells but you do not need to know a lot about them for this exam board) fungi cell walls are made of chitin.
Bacteria cells; surrounded by a capsule made of polysaccharides (slime layer) helps the bacteria to bind to other cells and to avoid phagocytosis. Some bacteria have flagella which help it to move. Pilli can be found attached all the way around the capsule and can help the bacteria to bind to other surfaces and are involved in bacterial conjugation. Semi-permeable plasma membrane, cell wall made of peptidoglycan. Prokaryotes have less organelles than eukaryotes and they do not have mitochondria.