Prokaryotic and eurkaryotic cells comparison

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Nucleus

Prokaryotic cells have no true nucleus, only an area where DNA is found.

Eukaryotic cells have a distinct nuclus, with a nuclear envelope.

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DNA

In prokaryotic cells DNA is not associated with proteins. Some DNA may be in the form of circular strands called plasmids.

However, in eukaryotic cells DNA is associeted with proteins called histones. There are no plasmids and DNA is linear.

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Organelles

Prokaryotic cells have no membrane-bound organelles.

Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria.

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Chloroplast

Prokaryotic cells do not have chloroplasts, only bacterial chlorophyll associated with the cell-surface membrane in some bacteria.

Chloroplasts are present in some eukaryotic cells (plants and algae).

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Ribosomes

In prokaryotic cells ribosomes are smaller (70S).

In eukaryotic cells ribosomes are larger (80S).

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Cell wall

The cell walls of prokaryotic cells are made of murein (also called peptidoglycan).

In eukaryotic cells, where a cell wall is present, it is made mostly of cellulos

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Capsule

Prokaryotic cells may have an outer mucilaginous layer called a capsule.

Eukaryotic cells do not have a capsule.

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