Progressivism

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  • Created by: Lily
  • Created on: 07-05-13 21:54

Concerns

  • MAIN FOCUS: Conditions for industrial workers - by 1914 25 states had passed laws making employers liable for job-related injury/death and NY passed 56 protection laws
  • Child Labour - by 1907 outlawed in 30 states
  • Public Health - garbage collection & street cleaning, parks in the city, street lights (between 1900-20 infant mortality dropped to 75/1000)
  • Social behaviour:restriction on immingrants, increase in temperance movement, tackled prostitution, regulate movies, proposed racial segregation, female suffrage, educational reform, battle against drugs, sterilisation
  • Big Business: consumer protection, proper application of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, regulation of private monopolies that owned water, gas, electricity and transport.
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State & Local

  • ROBERT LA FOLLETTE - aimed to tackle the power of trusts and monopolies, set up a railroad regulatory comission, increased corporate taxes
  • SAMUEL M JONES - profit sharing, established playgrounds, free kindergartens, lodging for homeless
  • HAZEN PINGREE - public baths/local services for the poor, fairer tax
  • OTHERS - campaigned against corruption in government
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"that damned cowboy in the White House!" Roosevelt

  • 1902 United Mine Workers Union Strike - called both sides to the White House, threatened to take over the mines and won a reluctant acceptance of a 10% wage increase and a 9 hour working day (instead of 10)
  • "Square deal for all Americans" - no special treatment of capitalists!
  • 1902 State of the Union - high priority to breaking up monopolies/trust busting
  • 1902 - National Recllamation Act - designated money from the sale of public land for water management in western regions
  • 1904 - Northen Securities Company were charged on violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and were ordered to dissolve, 43 other anti-trust laws (including break-up of the Standard Oil Company and the reorganisation of the American Tobacco Company)
  • 1906 Hepburn Act - Interstate Commerce Commission empowered to set max railroad rates
  • 1906 - Pure Food & Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act
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"i feel as fit as a bullmoose" Taft & Progressivis

  • Roosevelt refused to stand so Taft stepped in and continued to support him, (actually prosecuted more anti-trust cases than Roosevelt but was very shy!!!)
  • 1910 Mann-Elkins Act - extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission (telephone/telegraph companies, increased rate-setting powers)
  • THE RIFT - between Taft and the progressivists, a rift grew. Especially over tarriffs. Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff which raised duties and angered the progressivists. Tafts interior secretary Ballinger, approved the sale of several millions acres of public land to Seattle business men.
  • Roosevelt eventually stood against him in the "Bullmoose Progressive Party"
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Wilson & Progressivism - The Democrat of 1912

  • Underwood Simmons Act - reduced tariff rates on a 15% average
  • 1913 Federal Reserve Act - 12 regional Federal Reserve banks under mixed public/private control
  • Federal Trade Commission Act - power to investigate violations of federal regulations
  • Clayton Antitrust Act - listed specific corporate activities that could lead to federal law suits, a response to the vaguness of the Sherman Anti-trust Act. (nearly 100 corporations filed under this)
  • Improved working conditions
  • Keating-Owen Act 1916 - barred interstate-commerce products manufactured by child labour (unconstitutional in 1918)
  • 1916 Adamson Act - 8 hour day for interstate railway workers
  • Workmens Compensation Act - provided accident/injury protection
  • Federal Farm Loan Act & Federal Warehouse Act - low interest loans for farmers
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