Professionalism and Diversity

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  • Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 29-04-14 16:38

Diversity - Encompasses

  • Sexuality
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Disability
  • Age
  • Religion
  • Class
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Diversity - Importance Related to Postmodernism

  • Emphasises
    • Diversity
    • Plurality

Edwards (2006)

'A postmodern approach to PR can...accomodate differences in culture, gender, ethnicity and society in its analyses'

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Diversity - Women and PR

  • 2/3 of PR practitioners are women, men likely to hold senior positions with 18% of male practitioners at director level compared to 9% of women

O'Neil's Identification of Issues Holding Back Female Practitioners (2003)

  • Being purely task oriented and performing PR like technicians, In their task orientation not involving themselves at a more strategic level, Having less employee support to facilitate their work, Being in a minority at managerial level therefore have less power, Losing oout on formal managerial networks and informal networks, Tending not to have mentors, Being seen as less value than men by senior management

Different Types of Feminism

  • Liberal feminsim = Focuses on equality of opportunity in education and employment
  • Radical feminism = Analyse gender inequality seeing male domination as patriarchy

Lee Edwards (2009) 4 Levels of Change to Address Women's Position

  • Individual, Professional, Organisational, Societal
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Diversity - Equality Issues

  • Ethnic Minorities
    • Little research
    • CEBR report found that 6.5% of practitioners are from ethnic minority backgrounds, not far short of the 8% national average
  • Unpaid Internships
    • 3-6 month unpaid internships
    • PRCA's intern campaign - pay at least national minimum wage
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Diversity - Industry Bodies Response

  • PRCA
    • Intern campaign
    • Access commission
  • CIPR's diversity strategy
    • 'To develop a culture of diversity raising general awareness within the PR industry'
    • 'To increase the number of PR practitioners from diverse backgrounds'
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Professionalism - What is a Profession?

  • Specific Qualifications needed to practice
  • Shared body of knowledge
  • Membership of professional organisations required to practise
  • Regulation of profession by bodies
  • Sense of responsibility and service to the public
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Professionalism - Global Alliance of PR Associatio

  • Identified characteristics of a profession
    • Mastery of a skill through education and training
    • Duty to broaden society than one's own client
    • Objectivity 'High standards of conduct and performances'
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CIPR Focus on Professionalism

  • Institute of public relations formed in 1948
  • 'To encourage and foster the observances of high professional standards by its members'

Is the CIPR a Professional Body?

  • A membership not essential to practice
    • Most practitioners aren't members
  • Qualifications not essential for membership
    • Attained through length of practice or qualifications with practice
  • CIPR has a code of conduct
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Is PR a Profession

PR isn't a Profession

Jacquie L'Etang

'Non-professional occupation where barriers to practice do not exist'

  • PR qualifications, professional membership and critics accuse PR of being unethical

Moving Towards a Profession

Alsion Theaker

'PR possesses several prerequisites to be considered a preofession but cannot yet confidently proclaim itself a profession'

Implied Yes

  • References to the profession and technician
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Professionalism Ecompases

  • Specialist knowledges and skills
  • Competence
  • Trustworthy, ethical guardian
  • Social responsibility
  • Community building and conflict resolution
  • Integrity
  • Power, influence and responsiblity


  • Craft skills - Management skills
  • Counsel
  • Trust
  • Legality
  • Social responsibility 
  • Managing risk, issues and crisis
  • Community building and conflict resolution
  • Truthfulness
  • Power and obligation
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Professional PR Practitioner

(See mind map for diagram)

  • Broom and Smith (1979) and Dozier and Broom (1995)
  • Communications Manager
    • Plans and manages programmes
    • Advises management and makes policy decisions
    • Expert prescriber, communication facilitator, problem-solving process facilitator
  • Communications Technician
    • Implement decisions
    • Craft skills
  • Two other roles between manager and technician
    • Media relations
    • Communication and liaison role
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