professionalising medicine

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improvements in medical training

teaching hospitals developed where students could obeserve doctors

students would dissect bodies

there was more emphasis on studying microbes thanks to louis pasteur's germ theory

they learnt how to use improved medical technology such as stethoscopes and thermometers to help diagnose illness

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doctors needed a certicate from either, the royal college of physicians, the royal college of surgeons OR the society of apothecaries

after 1815, you had to pass an exam before certificates were awarded.

after 1858, all doctors had to be registered with the general medical council

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most midwives were women

UNTIL forceps were introduced in the 17th century

numbers fell because they weren't allowed the training necessary to use them

instead, 'men-midwives' became more common and treated richer women

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elizabeth garrett anderson (card 1)

women were not allowed to be doctors.

however, elizabeth defied the system, she would go to medical lectures until she was forced to stop.

then she studied privately.

the society of apothecaries allowed women, and elizabeth passed her exam in 1865.

she set up a medical practise in london and gained a medical degree

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elizabeth garrett anderson (card 2)

she helped set up the New Hospital for Women, and the London School of Medicine for Women

she set an important precedent

in 1876 women were allowed to go to university and obtain degrees

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florence nightingale (card 1)

Nursing wasn't a respectable job for women

there was little training

nightingale attended the first nurses' training school in kaiserwerth hospital, germany

she was asked to led a team of nurses at the militant hospital in Scutari in the crimean war, (1854-1856)

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florence nightingale (card 2)

she believed that miasma caused disease

she emphasised hygiene, fresh air, good supplies, and training for nurses

her approach lowered the death rate from 42% to 2%

her work was widely reported in britain

she published books on nursing, and set up hospital organisations and training schools

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