Product Design


What is design movement?

          New, distinct styles at certain times in history.

          Examples of design movement:

-          The crystal palace was a masterpiece of design and engineering.

-          Textile design.

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Art Nouveau

          This design style took its name from a shop that opened in Paris in 1895. Based on the organic lines of climbing plants and Japanese art, it was popular with designers of glass, furniture, fabrics and wrought ironwork. Some of them most famous designs are the lamps of Louis C. Tiffany, and the world of Rene Lalique.

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The Art and Crafts Movement

          William Morris founded the Arts and Crafts movements at the end of the 19th century. His designs for wallpaper, furniture and textiles were inspired by organic shapes and patterns found in nature. Morris was a socialist, firmly against poor working conditions and the damage done to the environment by industrialisation. He was keen to promote the production of quality products. His work used expensive materials and traditional techniques that only the wealthy could afford.

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          Modernist designs were made ergonomically, using appropriate materials and very little decoration. Designers like Charles Rennie Mackintosh moved away from organic lines and started to use geometric shapes, which were also easier to mass produce.

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          The Bauhaus was a school of art and design, founded in Germany by Walter Gropius. Between 1919 and 1933, Bauhaus designers used modern materials and mass-production methods. Experimental work using colour and form was encourage to produce designs that were both artistic and skilled, while following the underlying principle that form should follow function.

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Art Deco

          This fashionable and glamorous period of design was influenced by other design movements, as well as ancient Egyptian art. Used in interior design between 1920 and 1939, its influence can also be seen in the architecture of the time. Clarice Cliff, a famous designer of ceramics, decorated her work using this bright, bold style until the Second World War when it became illegal to use time and resources on decorating products.

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De Stijl

          Using basic shapes and primary colours, this movement took geometric design to another level. Founded in Holland by a group of painters and architects, including Theo Van Doesburg, it was the inspiration for a range of furniture and architecture that used only the essential form and colour in the design.

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four things product design is influenced by

-          The discovery of new materials

-          Iconic Products

-          Manufacturing and Technological Developments

-          Fashion, trends and the latest thinking

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The three main influences of the 'streamlined age'

The rapid growth in transport design

The interest on science

The race to put the first man on the moon

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-           Design or provide with a form that presents very little resistance to a flow of air or water, increasing speed and ease of movement.

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Idea's from other designers

Retro styling - basically taking designs from the 'old ages' and producing them with modern electronic components inside.

Natural form and pattern - Major influences of product design. Patterns from nature are often used by designers.

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CAM- Computer aided manufacturing & CAD- Computer Aided Design

CAM relies on data known as machine code. It is numerical data which explains why the machinery used for CAM is often called CNC (computer numerical control).

CAM - Computer Aided Manufacturing this is for manufacturing

CAD - Computer Aided Design this is for designing..... 2D design

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Paper and Board

Making paper

·                     Tiny chips of wood are cooked in water and chemicals to create a mushy pulp

·                     The pulp is then poured over a fine mesh. As the water drains away the cellulose fibres, which are less than 1mm in length, naturally link together when they touch

·                     It is then passes through a set of rollers in the paper machine to remove the remaining excess water and thus the web of fibres become stronger.

·                     Board is made in the same way but to turn it from paper to board it will need several layers of pulp.

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Timber is the name given generally for wood materials: there are 3 main types of timber:

-           These come from deciduous or broad leafed trees.

-           Slow growing which tends to make them harder

-           Usually sold by the cubic meter

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·                     These come from coniferous trees which have needles rather than leaves

·                     Grow faster and usually softer to work with

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Manufacturing boards

·                     These are timber sheets which are made either gluing layers or wood fibres together

·                     MDF

·                     Plywood

·                     Chipboard

·                     Hardboard

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Ferrous Metals - Mostly consist of iron and small quantities of other elements and metals. Ferrous metals are prone to rusting if exposed to moisture and can be picked up by a magnet

Non- Ferrous metals - Don’t contain any iron at all. Therefore do not rust when exposed to moisture and are not attracted to a magnet: Zinc, aluminium, tin.

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the improvement of existing products that are already being sold.

Wide Range of Users: the inclusive market of people as well as specific exclusive groups of people, whose needs the product should meet.

Company logo and trademark: company symbols and service marks used to advertise and display products.

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Safety logo’s

identifiable logos on packaging to give the consumer the confidence that the product has been tested

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Die cutting

a technique used in the printing process, involving cutting thought with a blade attached to a plywood base. This is known as a cutting forme.

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squashing the card so it can be easily folded

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Blister packaging

packaging using a pre-formed plastic blister and a printed paperboard card as a heat seal coating.

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Skin packaging

: packaging used to seal a product between a layer of heated plastic and layer of adhesive coated paper.

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Brand development

Creating and developing a strong product identify that will appeal to consumers.

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Digital Media

A form of advertising on the computer

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Point Of Sale (POS)

where the product is displayed for sale. A POS is often part of a new product launch. It may be a unique display stand with key information about the product.

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British standards institute

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: Confromité Européene

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filling a space with liquid material until it becomes solid

Casting Pattern: The shape of the object required, usually made from timber and used to create the hollow shape in the sand

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Ultrasonic Welding

The use of very high frequency vibrations to generate heat within the area to be joined, thereby allowing the materials to fuse together.

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A compound that bonds item’s together

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: a surface application applied to wood, metal and plastic.

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treating a surface with a solvent-based chemical to protect the surface against damage by moisture or other contaminants

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using electric currents to transfer particles from one item to the surface of another.

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plant-based fibres used to paper-making                     

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paper-based material but thicker. Any form of paper weighing more than 200 gsm is classed as board.

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strengthening the material by building it up in layers with the same or another material.

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a natural material generally sourced from a deciduous tree

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capable of being produced with minimal long-term effect on the environment

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a natural material generally sourced from a coniferous tree

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all natural wood is seasoned to remove moisture. The process of seasoning involves drying in controlled to prevent twisting and warping.

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Manufactured boards

timber-based products produced by an industrial process involving gluing smaller pieces together


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a way of re-processing and re-using a material

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Ferrous metal

a metal containing iron

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Non-ferrous metal

a metal that does not contain iron

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a metal produced by combining two or more metals.



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a manufactured material

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the process of creating a synthetic plastic

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plastic materials that can be remoulded with heat

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Thermosetting plastic

: a plastic material that, once moulded, cannot be reshaped


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