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Procedures + Findings

Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Experiment 2 

  • Lab Experiment
  • 150 students
  • Film less than 60 secs shown to each group
  • Four seconds of a multiple traffic accident
  • 50 asked critical question: "About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?"
  • Other 50 asked: "About how fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?"
  • Other 50= control group
  • Week later, 10 questions asked. Critical= "Did you see any broken glass? Yes or no?"

Findings
Saw broken glass
Smashed= 16 Hit= 7 Control= 6

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Procedures + Findings

Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Experiment 1

  • Lab experiment
  • 45 students
  • 7 films of traffic accidents, 5-30 seconds
  • Critical question: 'About how fast were the cars going when they hit eachother?'
  • Question manipulated. 'Hit' replaced with 'Smashed' 'Collided' 'Bumped' + 'Contacted'
  • Groups of 9 subjects asked same question with different verb

Findings
Smashed= 40.8
Collided= 39.3
Bumped= 38.1
Hit= 34.0
Contacted= 31.8 

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Context

Gardner And Gardner (1969)

  • Something special about human mind that allows us to learn language?
     
  • Language is a complex cognitive function
     
  • Previous studies attempted to teach language to chimps, dolphins, parrots, gorillas
     
  • Hayes and Hayes (1951)- 6 years, only taught 4 words 'mama' 'papa' 'up' + 'cup'
     
  • Unable to learn spoken language due to lips and larynx differences
     
  • Have dextrous hands, possible to learn American Sign Language
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Context

Milgram (1963)

  • Important to obey in every day life e.g. law, police
     
  • World war 2 1933-1945, people 'obeying orders' at death camps
     
  • Tested 'Germans are different' theory
     
  • Investigate tendency to obey people of authority even if causing pain/harm
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Alternative Evidence

Milgram (1963)

  • Explanation of obedience
     
  • Milgram (1974)= women demonstrate same level of obedience as men did in original study. Gender Bias
     
  • Hofling (1966)= 21 of 22 nurses willing to obey 'Dr Smith', gave patient twice the advised dose of Astroten. Ecological Validity
     
  • Milgram (1974)= same results in office, not only lab. Situational Bias
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