Rutter et al 2007 - longitudinal study of 100 Romanian Children
Those adopted at 6 months or before showed normal emotional development, those adopted after showed disinhibted attachment and problems with peers
Long term consequences of privation less severe if the child has the ability to form an attachment
Hodges and Tizard 1989 - longitudinal study of 65 british children
Children institutionalised before 4 months policy against staff forming attachments
Early privation has negative effects on the ability to form relationships even when given good substitute emotional care
Failure to form attachments in the sensitive period has irreversible effects on emotional development
Evaluation of Institutionalisation
Quinton et al 1984 - 50 institutionalised women 50 non institutionalised women. Those who were in institutional care went on to become poor parents.
Children in istitutional care are usually physicall small. Gardener 1972 studied a child who had to be fed by a tube. Mother was scared to pick up the child. At 8 months the child was physically stunted and severley withdrawn. She thrived in hospital despite no change in her diet.
Privation is only one factor
In the Romanian orphans study, one third went on to recover. It is more likely that the negative effects occur when there are multiple risk factors, privation followed by poor subsequent care (Turner and Lloyd 1995)