Prevention 2

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Social crime prevention:

Huges and Edwards: 2005 

"focussed on changing targeted social environment and the motivations of offender, and 'community' development, in order to deter potential offender from future offending"

  • prevention of criminality
  • focus on people not situations 
  • some people/groups more likely to engage in crimial activity 
  • reduce risk factors and increase protection. 
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Risk factors: Individual:

  • low intelligence and attainment - not well educated
  • empathy 
  • impulsiveness 
  • social cognitive skills are poor.
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risk factors: family

  • criminal/ anti social family members. 
  • large family size
  • child-rearing methods 
  • child abuse / neglect 
  • disrupted families .
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Farrington and Lober 1999

  • found all these effects were visible in criminals: 
  • imulsivness:attention problems 
  • low school attainment 
  • poor parental supervision
  • parental conflict / anti social parents 
  • young mothers, large familie sizes 
  • low family income 
  • coming from broken families. 
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Farrington and Lober 1999

  • found all these effects were visible in criminals: 
  • imulsivness:attention problems 
  • low school attainment 
  • poor parental supervision
  • parental conflict / anti social parents 
  • young mothers, large familie sizes 
  • low family income 
  • coming from broken families. 
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Risk focused prevention:

children and juveniles: 

  • parental education 
  • parent training 
  • pre-school programmes 
  • school programmes 
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Risk focused prevention:

children and juveniles: 

  • parental education 
  • parent training 
  • pre-school programmes 
  • school programmes 
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risk focus prevention: nursing home experiment:

  • 400 high risk pregnant women
  • 9 home visits during preganacy, 23 visits post-natally 
  • nurse promoted: 
  • - positive health-related behaviours during preganacy and early years of childs life 
  • - competent care of children
  • - maternal personal development
  • - linked families with needed health care and human service and involved family memebrs and friends. 

Age 15 experiment group reported: 

  • fewere instances of running away
  • fewere arrests
  • fewer convictions and violations of probation 
  • fewer lifetime sex partners 
  • fewer smoked 
  • fewer days having consumed alochol in last 6 months.
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risk focus prevention: nursing home experiment:

  • 400 high risk pregnant women
  • 9 home visits during preganacy, 23 visits post-natally 
  • nurse promoted: 
  • - positive health-related behaviours during preganacy and early years of childs life 
  • - competent care of children
  • - maternal personal development
  • - linked families with needed health care and human service and involved family memebrs and friends. 

Age 15 experiment group reported: 

  • fewere instances of running away
  • fewere arrests
  • fewer convictions and violations of probation 
  • fewer lifetime sex partners 
  • fewer smoked 
  • fewer days having consumed alochol in last 6 months.
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Risk focused prevention: adults:

Sampson and Laub (1993) 

  • focus on 'adults roe' 
  • - employment 
  • -housing
  • - prosocial bonds 
  • -mental health 

Employment: 

  • UK - Young adults commited more crimes during unemployment (Farrington et al 1986) 
  • netherlands - Work = reduction in offending 49% men 46% women (Visher 2005) 
  • Only high quality jobs reduce criminality (Uggen 1999) 
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Risk focused prevention: adults:

Sampson and Laub (1993) 

  • focus on 'adults roe' 
  • - employment 
  • -housing
  • - prosocial bonds 
  • -mental health 

Employment: 

  • UK - Young adults commited more crimes during unemployment (Farrington et al 1986) 
  • netherlands - Work = reduction in offending 49% men 46% women (Visher 2005) 
  • Only high quality jobs reduce criminality (Uggen 1999) 
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community crime prevention:

  • situational and social approaches 
  • spatial analysis: high rates of crime in some areas (hot spots) 
  • chicago school (Mckay 1942) 
  • underclass (Murray 1990) 
  • mentoring 
  • neighbourhood watch schemes - increasing surveillance and social cohesion 
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community crime prevention:

  • situational and social approaches 
  • spatial analysis: high rates of crime in some areas (hot spots) 
  • chicago school (Mckay 1942) 
  • underclass (Murray 1990) 
  • mentoring 
  • neighbourhood watch schemes - increasing surveillance and social cohesion 
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Broken windows: Willson and Kelling 1982: Zimbado

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Broken windows: Willson and Kelling 1982: Zimbado

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3 P's: People, Propery and Place

  • poor job prospects 
  • high levels of crime 
  • educational under achievement 
  • poor health 
  • problems with housing and environment 
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