The Closet Imperialist - William McKinley 1897-190
- Need to avoid "wars of conquest" and territorial agrgression
- However, 1898 War with Spain and American Empire in Pacific & Latin America
- Encouraged involvement with China in order to expand trade - "Open Door", ignored by European powers untill the 1899 rebellion where the USA sent in troops and Europe agreed.
- Not motivated by "greedy imperialism" but by a "civilising mission to aid the development of the less advanced"
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The Proud Imperialist - Teddy Roosevelt 1901-1908
- "speak softly and carry a big stick"
- 1904 - Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
- "USA had the right to exercise international police power in Latin America in the case of wrongdoing"
- 1903 Panama, 1905 Dominican Republic, 1902 Venezuela
- Showing to the world that the USA was a power to be reckoned with
- American policy would fully control it's "backyard"
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The inbetween Imperialist - William Taft 1909-1912
- Supported interventionist policies but avoided direct colonialism
- "Dollar Diplomacy" - financial power to secure economic dominati on in Latin America and China "dollars for bullets"
- 1909 - Financial debts of Honduras to establish control
- 1911 - supported a revolution in Micaragua and lent the Government $15 million in exchange for control of their bank, railroad and customs service. When a revolt broke out against the Government Taft ordered in USA military support untill 1933.
- 1911 - backed railraod projects in China
- Dollar Diplomacy unpopular
- Anti-imperialist: "underhand colonialism"
- Imperialists "be more open about imperialist amibitions"
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The Deluded Imperialist - Woodrow Wilson 1913-1920
- Peacefull and ethical approach to foreign affairs
- "never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest"
- Turned away from Dollar Diplomacy
- Supported Open Door
- Dedicated to spreading the "democratic ideal" - confident he understood the well-being of others countries better than their leaders
- 1914 - marines sent to Mexico to restore order after a revolution
- 1915 - marines sent into Haiti and Dominican Republic after upheavals. (stayed in Haiti untill 1934 & DR untill 1924)
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