Population Structure Trends

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  • Created by: jess
  • Created on: 13-05-13 18:41

Dependency Ratio


  • Shows what proportion of the population depend on the working age people
  • High dependency ratio - fewer people of working age are paying taxes and larger numbers of people who need looking after by the state e.g. UK
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Developed Countries (Aging Population)

  • Increased National Spending: hospitals, nursing homes, state pensions, social security
  • Increased Tax Burden: smaller working population, fewer people paying taxes
  • Later Retirement: decline in numbers of traditional working age, increased levels of healthy 60-70 year olds
  • Growth in 'Grey Power': increased numbers of active elderly will find their political feet and exert and increasing influence on decision making
  • Career Stagnation: delayed retirment means young workers dont get promoted
  • Employment Changes: a need for health and nurse careers
  • Internal Migration: retired population traditionally move out of cites to rural areas
  • Increased Reliance on Families: strain on welfare state lead to a reduction in provisions so elderly get dumped on relatives
  • Increased Reliance on Personal Financial Provisions and Decreased Standard of Living Among the Poorest of the Elderly: reduction in state provisions will force people to make their own arrangments - can not afford will be in poverty
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Developing Countries (Youthful Population)

  • Continued Population Increase in the Immediate Future: number of people of fertile age make reduction in population impossible
  • Possible Imposition of Severe Population Restriction: governments panic about population exhausting resources
  • Pressure on Government Expenditure: education provisions stretched, increased class sizes, higher proportion of children having little or no education - circle high birth rate no education
  • Children Required to Work: lack of education makes it an economic necessity - poor children pay own way
  • Internal and External Migration: large numbers of young migrate to areas of prosperity
  • Increased Unrest and Instability: large numbers of males in cities increase crime
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CASE STUDY!!!! - Nigeria - Developing Country

  • decrease in number of males in secondary school is likely to urbanisation in country
  • decreasing size of gap between men and women good news for fertility
  • 50% of Nigerians are under 20 years old
  • working population is 30% of total population
  • dependency ration of 233%
  • increase number and proportion of the 10-24 ages
  • significant changes in secondary school enrolment: 1990 42% male, 14% female 1996 32% male, 27% female
  • 280 current population of the entire West Africa sub region
  • Prediction: Nigerians population would jump from 115 million (now) to 280 million (2015)
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