Population Movements

Unit 2 AQA Geography - Population Change

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People Migrate Within Countries and to Different C

When people move into an area, it's called immigration. These people are called immigrants

When people leave an area, it's called emigration. The people are called emigrants

People can move to different countries. This can be across the world, or just a few miles over a border

People can move between different regions within countries, e.g. from the countryside to the city (called rural-uraban migration)

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Migration Happend Because of Push and Pull Factors

The reasons a person migrates can be classified as either push or pull factors

Push factors are things about a person's place of origin (where they originally lived) that make them decide to move. 

Pull factors are things about a person's destination that attracts them. 

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Push Factors

They're usually negative things like not being able to find job, poor living conditions, war or a natural disaster in their country of origin. 

For example, refugees are people who've been forced to leave their country due to a war or a natural disaster, e.g thousands of refugees migrated to escape the war in Kosovo in 1999. 

More Examples

Natural Disasters 

Low Income 

Housing Shortages 


Political, Social Unrest

Difficult Climate

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Pull Factors

They're usually positive things such as job opportunities or a better standard of living. 

For example, economic migrants are people who move voluntarily from poor places to richer places looking for jobs or higher wages, e.g from Mexico to the USA. They often migrate so they can earn more money and then send some back to family in their country of origin.

Pull Factors

Job Prospects


High Standard of Living

High Wages

Educational Opportunities

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Migration has Positive and Negative Impacts

Source Country 

Positive Impacts 

Reduced demand on services e.g. schools and hospitals. 

Money is sent back to the source country by emigrants. 

Negative Impacts

Labour shortage - it's mostly people of working age that emigrate.

Skills shortage - sometimes it's the more highly educated people that emigrate. 

Ageing Population - there's a igh proportion of older people left. 

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Recieving Country 

Positive Impacts

Increased labour force - young people immigrate to find work. 

Migrant workers pay taxes that hep fund services. 

Negative Impacts

Locals and immigrants compete for jobs - this can lead to tension and even confict. 

Increased demand for services e.g. overcrowding in schools and hospitals. 

Not all the money earnt by immigrants is spent in the destination country - some is sent back to their country of origin. 

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