Population - introduction

Key terms and concepts

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Rate of natural increase

  • defined as how fast a population or number of people in a particular area grows naturally
  • through births and deaths
  • One of the factors that determines how fast a population grows or changes in size.
  • Calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate.
  • Birth rate is defined as the number of live births per 1000 people per year and is expressed in terms of the number of births per 1000 people in a year (eg. 6 births per 1000 in 2009)
  • Death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 people per year
  • (eg. 3 deaths per 1000 in 2009)

hence, RNI: 6-3 =3 : increase of 3 people per 1000 in 2009

Birth rate > Death rate : RNI +ive and vice versa

Birth rate=death rate : RNI will be 0

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Population distribution

Pop. distribution: manner in which people are spread over a particular area.

  • Affected by the physical environment and the level of tech and is considered uneven.
  • Fertile soil (river deltas)
  • Suitable relief (not mountainous areas)
  • Non-extreme climate (too harsh, cold ,dry like deserts)
  • Rivers also act as a source of food and water and a life-line.
  • favourable for growth of crops
  • Technology allows people to overcome unfavourable environments and convert it into suitable living environments.

Eg. Las Vegas (water channelled from rivers to deserts)

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Population density

Population density: Number of people living per square kilometere of land .

  • Expressed in terms of number of people per sq kilometere. (people/sq km)
  • Eqn: nos. of people/ total land area

Dense (high pop. density) (eg. cities)

  • overcrowding
  • shortage of basic resources
  • Enviro. pollution

Sparse (low pop. density) (eg. deserts, forests ,countrysides)

  • Lack of labour


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