Many countries are having population increase and others are suffering population loss. This is due to birth, death and migration rates.
There are many reasons for these differences:
- Economic: birth rates often varies because of differences in the costs and benefits of having children. MEDCs have more resources to ensure a healthier population; better diet, better sanitation and better health care all combine to reduce death rates.
- Social: the status of women and their education are among the most important factors affecting birth rates. The impact of drugs, alcohol and crime has caused increase in death rates while religios beliefs about contraception has causing the spread of HIV/AIDS
- Political: governments can make a big difference to birth rates and death rates- due to the direct actions they take, the amount of money spent on hospitals, education etc. and in controlling the amount of people that are allowed to enter the country
Richer, developed countries tend to have lower popilation growth.
Poorer, developing coutrnies tend to have a higher population growth
An Ageing Population: An ageing population is one where average age is rising
Ageing populations can be difficult for countries because of:
- rising costs of health care
- rising costs of pensions
- falling numbers of 'workers' to pay taxes to fund pensions or health care
Japan is an appropriate case study.