- Predict pop. of a country - Based on wealthy countries - resources vary
High birth rate DUE TO no family planning, children needed for work + lack of birth control and a HIGH DEATH RATE due to poor medical care, disease + famine
Stage 2 e.g. Egypt
- HIGH birth rate. Decreasing death rate due to better healthcare, sanitation + clean water.
- FALLING birth + death rates due to better healthcare + less children needed for work
Stage 4 + 5
- LOW birth + death rate due to family planning, good healthcare, later marriages. Stage 5 countries have a natural decrease, so their pop. is decreasing.
Ageing population problems
- More pensions, more health care needed e.g. more retirement homes, more hospital beds + more undertakers
Large youthful population problems
- More schools needed + not enough housing. Lack of food supplies means there could be famine + pressure on health care as diseases
A population pyramid in MEDCs
- Narrow base due to low fertility rate - contraception is universal + later marriages
- High life expectancy + low death rate - large elderly population
A population pyramid for LEDCs - pop. growing rapidly
- Wide base - large families due to no family planning, little education + little birth control
- High death rate + low life expectancy due to lack of clean water + poor healthcare
Reasons for pop. distribution
- Physical factors - part of the environment e.g. water supply, climate, natural resources, relief
- Human factors - made by humans e.g. roads, housing, govt investment, education, healthcare
Why birth + death rates vary:
- Religious views - impact on use of contraceptives
- Life expectancy
- Govt policies - pro-natalist / anti-natalist
Decreasing death rates:
- Vaccination - increases life expectancy
- Better healthcare + medicine - less people die from diseases
- Clean drinking water - reduces the risk of diseases e.g. cholera from dirty water
Decreasing and increasing population case studies
Russia - a decreasing population Natural increase = -0.6%
- Alcoholism + industrial disease mean a higher death rate
- Later marriages - less children
- A low fertility rate of 1.2 children per woman (contraception) + high abortion rates
- Low immigration + outward immigration of the young
Yemen - an increasing population Natural increase = 3.2%
- Early marriage means a lack of education + little understanding of birth control
- High unemployment means govt does't get as much money from taxes -> poor healthcare
- Vaccinations mean increased life expectancy
- High fertiity rate - 6.7 children per woman
Ageing and youthful population case studies
Japan - ageing population because...
- Better diet + healthcare - increases life expectancy
- Women have children later -> declining birth rate below the replacement level of 2.4
- Later marriages
Problems created by an ageing population...
Less people are in the workforce and there are more pensions.There is an increase in nursing homes and higher taxes due to higher healthcare costs.
Mexico - youthful population because...
Mexico has a large percentage of young people and the average age is 26. There is a low death rate and vaccinations have increased life expectancy.
Problems created by a youthful population...
- Increase in school places -> more schools built
- High unemployment rates -> young people migrate to USA - pop. decrease
Population policies case studies
China's one-child policy - anti-natalist
High birth rates in China were unsustainable as there wasn't enough food, water or natural resources. So, in 1979, the One-child policy was introduced to limit pop. growth. Couples having one child receive financial rewards + health care benefits. For those who have more than one child, heavy fines are imposed + there can be loss of employment
- May not be enough workers
- Couples use abortion (illegal) to make sure their child is a boy
- Serious imbalance of men to women - 113 boys for every 100 girls
Sweden - pro-natalist policy (since 1991)
- Sick child benefit - 120 paid days per child per year
- All-day childcare + all-day schools
- Cash child benefit - €900 per child
- Patenal leave - 13 months off at 80% income
People migrate to join family, for a better education, employment opportunities + political reasons cause people to flee.
Advantages of migration - More people in the workforce boosts the economy. Migrants work hard. Diversity increases as there are more languages + cultures. Immigrants may set up their own workforce , creating employment
Disadvantages of migration - Not enough jobs leads to unemployment May be a lack of resources. Young immigrants put pressure on schooling, which means more schools are built + more teachers employed. Services may find it hard to adapt e.g. a maternity ward
Russia - a pop. strategy was created in 2007 to ensure enough workers for economic growth. It involves a cash incentive to encourage Russians to come back to Russia to work. It encourages migrant workers to work in high skilled professions.
UK - a points system was introduced in 2008 to limit the amount of migrant workers. To get a visa, you have to be English speaking + well-qualified.
USA + Immigration
In 1990, the US passed the Immigration Act, aiming to attract skilled foreign workers and limit the number of migrants. People migrate from Mexico to America.
Advantages are that they share culture with Americans + do jobs Americans don't want to do. They are seen as cheap labour + there are stronger political ties.
Disadvantages for America are that there is racial tension + Mexicans send money away from the economy back to their economy.
Advantanges for Mexico are that money can be sent back to Mexico as remittances + migrants develop new skills they can bring back to Mexico. There is less pressure on food + housing as people have left.
Disadvantages for Mexico are that families are split up + there are less skilled workers.
- Pull factors of an area are no congestion / pollution, no crime, fresh air, open space + mild climate, low taxes
- Push factors of an area are that there is a need to travel for most shopping, high living costs, it is remote + there is no local entertainment / a pub / a hotel
Population density - measure of how crowded a place is
Natural increase = birth rate - death rate
Young Dependents - children under 15 yrs old dependent on the economically active
Elderly Dependents - people usually over 60 who rely on the economically active people
Economically Active - working population between the ages 16-65
Replacement level - number of births required to maintain population size
Emigration - people exiting an area / country
Immigration - people entering an area / country
Migration - the movement of people from one place to another
Push factors - reasons why people leave
Pull factors - reasons that attract people to an area
Anti-natalist policies - encourage people to have fewer children
Pro-natalist policies - incentives to encourage people to have children
Population policies - measures taken by a govt. to inﬂuence pop. size, growth/distribution