Kerala, India - Non birth control policy
India has been trying to control it's population for over 50 years due to facing a problem with over population. Kerala is in stage 4 of the demographic transition model. It has achieved low birth rates and low death rates by: Investing in social welfare schemes, particularly heath, education and land reform. Education - all children atend school until they are 16. Adult literacy classes are readily available. The literacy rate is 97% and more women go to university than men. Health care standards - life expectancy is 73 years. Improved access to doctors, vacination programmes and better medical advice have reduced infant mortality. Family planning policies - free contraception is provided. Advice and education on benefits of small families. Higher Incomes - redistribution of land has lead to higher incomes. Less poverty and better standards of nutrition. This has lead to improved standards of health. These changes have lead to... More women being literate - more likely to have paid work and marry later. Understanding about family planning so couples can chose how many and when they hve children. Better health care and nutrition meaning children are less likely to die in infancy. Fewer children being born.
China's one child policy
In 1979 China's one child policy was introduced - couples may only have one child. Couples could be punished with fines on each additional child and sanctions which ranged from forced sterilisation and pressure to abord the pregnancy to discrimination at work. Modifications have taken place which mean that couples from an ethnic minority or are both only children themselves or live in rural areas may have a second child. Critisisms of the policy are It has lead to forced abortions which are very late and forced sterilisations. The same population change could have been achieved by education and voluntary means on encouragement to marry later and space children out. Economic prosperity would have resulted in lower birth rates. There is evidence of female infanticide - men now out number women by 60 million. Many Chinese people were unhappy as they wanted larger families. Because there is only one child in the family, that child is very spoilt - known as the 'little emperor' effect. Successes of the policy are: Population growth rates have fallen. It has helped China's rapid economic growth. Problems such as inadequate housing due to overpopulation have been reduced.
Traffic in Cities - London Congestion Zone
London introduced congestion charges in 2003 to try and reduce traffic in central London. Motorists are charges £10 per day to drive into the zone between 7am and 6pm. The system in controlled using Automatic Number Plate Recognition and drives are fined between £60-£180 for non-payments of the congestion charge. Studies show that 70,000 fewer cars entered the original congestion zone each day compared to pre charging levels. Even with this reduction the area still remained congested. Congestion charges generate about £140 million per year which is invested in improving other aspects of London's transport.
Rocinha, Rio de Janeiro - Squatter Settlement rede
Rocinha is and example of a squatter settlement that has been gradually improved and redeveloped largely by people who live there. It has an estimated population of 250,000 people. It is build on a steep hillside and the original buildings were flimsy structures made from materials such as wood or corrugated iron. Today, almost all the houses are made from concrete and brick. Some buildings are three/four stories tall and all have sanitation, plumbing and electricity. The infrastructure has been developed so it has roads and water supplies. Health centers and local schools have been built. Hundreds of local businesses have been established, including shops, bus services and even a locally based channel, TV ROC. Many of the inhabitants work in central Rio and others have jobs in the informal sector, including selling food and souvenirs on the beach.
Bed-ZED, Wallington, South London - Sustainable Ur
In 2002 the Beddington Zero Energy Development (Bed-ZED) was opened. It was an experiement on zero carbon living. There are 100 households living in apartments that have been designed to save as much energy as possible. Wind turbines and biomass boilers generate power. Buildings are weel insulated. Rainwater is collected and reused. Residents use public transport or bikes and also have shared cars. Residents try to buy locally produced food and recycle their waste. BedZED is in the London Borough of Sutton and made a commitment to become a 'One Planet living Borough' by 2025.
Thailand - Mass Tourism
Why travel to Thailand? More affordable that other European destinations. New exotic destination with new culture. Western style resorts, sandy beaches, tropical warm weather and historical buildings. POSITIVE EFFECTS Tourism has played a significant part in the economic development of Thailand. Tourism is Thailand's top earner of foreign currency. Tourism is a major employer because it is labor intensive. NEGATIVE EFFECTS Foreign companies take alot of the profits out of the country. Sea water is threatened by waste. Physical features have been destroyed along sea fronts by bulding of hotels.
Antarctica - Extreme Environment
Main attractions: An experience of wilderness To view wildlife/landscape Activies such as climbing/diving Tourism is self regulated: Dumping waste is prohibited guidelines to minimise the risk of bringing alien organisms and damaging the environment. Visitors are not allowed on sites of specific scientific value.