Population Change


Demographic Transition Model

Why there was a high birth rate?

  • Tradition
  • No birth control
  • Lots died
  • Work the land
  • Sign of power
  • Need for heirs
  • Religious beliefs

Birth rate remained high when death rate fell...

  • Improved health care
  • Babies lived longer
  • Tradition of having lots of kids

Birth rates fall

  • Birth control
  • Can't affors that many children
  • Education
  • Desire for luxuries
  • Both parents work
  • Women want careers
  • Physical strain
  • Abortion
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Demgraphic Transition Model:Death rate

Why was there high death rate?

  • Disease
  • Lack of healthcare
  • Famine
  • Not enough money
  • War
  • Malnutrition
  • Poor living conditions
  • Lack of education

Death rate starting to fall

  • Better health care
  • Hygiene
  • Living conditions improved
  • Sanitation
  • Scientific advances in medicine
  • More doctors

Death rate contines to fall

  • Better food
  • Better transport
  • Increased scientific advances
  • Better health care
  • Better education
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Definitions: Population

Poulation Definitions

Birth rate: The number of live births per thousand per year

Death rate: The number of deaths per thousand per year

Natural Increase: The positive difference between the birth rate and the death rate

Infant Mortality Rate: The number of babies who die before the age of 5

Adult Literacy Rate: The percentage of adults who can read and write

Life Expectancy: How long a person is expected to live for

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Migration Definitions

Migration:When a person moves from one country to another

Immigration: When a person moves from one country into another

Emmigration: When a person moves out of a country

Rural to Urban migration: Countryside to the city

Urban to Rural migration: City to counrtyside

International migration: Movement from one country to another

Regional migration: Different areas of the same country

Refugee: When a person is forced to leave their country for fear of persecution for reasaons of religion, politics, civil war or environmental disaster

Asylum Seeker: People who have left their country, have applied to another country as a refugee and are waiting for a decision

Illegal Immigrant: A person who enters a country with minimum belongings, no documentation and they fail to meet the requirements of that country and so may become part of the hidden economy

Economic migrant: Make the decision to leave their country for work but can return if they want

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Push factors

Push Factors: These make you leave a country

  • Weather
  • Troubles
  • Better jobs abroad
  • Disease
  • Poor salary
  • More benefits elsewhere
  • Better housing
  • Family
  • Cheaper elsewhere
  • Change
  • People
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Settlements: Places where people live. They can be just one building - isloated dwelling -  up to large cities, conurbations or megalopolises where many cities have merged together.

Conurbation: A continuous urban area. when a city has grown to include the surrounding towns. E.g Poleglass

Megalopolises: Where two or more cities grow and meet. E.g Boston

A settlement may be permanent or temporary; EG refugee camps are temporary but may become permanent

Site: Land on which the settlement is built

Most of the needs of the people were related to the physical geography of the site: shape of the land and closeness to the water, shelter and defence.

Wet Point Site: Close to water supply

Defence Site: Easy to defend from attacking tribes. EG top of hill or inside a wide river meander

Bridging Point Site: Where it is easy to cross a river. Can be useful for defence and where places were trading routes came together.

Dry Point Site: These are away from the risk of flooding

Aspect: Settlements are often found in a gap between two areas of higher ground

Trading Centres: Often settlements grow where natural route ways and rivers meet, which helps  the development of roads, railways and canals

Fuel Supply: Coal, oil and wood

Food Supply: Crops, animals and farms

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