Population Change

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Population Change

World Population- increasing rapidly, faster and faster

Birth rate- no. of live babies born/ year/ 1000

Death rate- no. of deaths/ year/ 1000

When BR higher, pop grows- natural increase (vice versa- natural decrease)

Size of countries pop. also affected by migration

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Demographic Transition Model

Stage 1: High Birth Rate, HIgh Death Rate, Pop growth rate: zero, Pop size: low and steady

Stage 2: High BR, Rapidly falling DR, Pop growth rate: v. high, Pop size: rapidly increasing

Stage 3: Rapidly falling BR, Slowly falling DR, Pop growth rate: high, Pop size: increasing

Stage 4: Low BR, Low DR, Pop growth rate: zero, Pop size: high and steady

Stage 5: Slowly falling BR, Low DR, Pop growth rate: negative, Pop size: slowly falling

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Pop. Growth and Structure

Pop. structure changes at each stage of DTM- pop pyramids- different structures at different stages

Stage 1: BR high- no contraception, lots of children because high Infant mortality rate // DR high- poor healthcare, Pop structure- life expectancy low (Pop pyramid- pyramid shaped, lines go drastically inwards, v thinner as you go up)

Stage 2: BR high- no contraception/ children to work // DR fall- improved healthcare // life expectancy increased, still more young than older (pyramid- thicker than 1)

Stage 3: BR fall- empancation of women, contraception, better education, economy changes, dont need kids to work // DR fall medical advances // more people living to be older (Thicker than 2, still pyramid shaped)

Stage 4: BR low- more urban areas, wealth improvres- more material less money for kids // DR low- god healthcare // pop structure- life expectancy high (not pyramid shaped anymore- wider in middle)

Stage 5: BR falling- less money for kids- dependant older relatives // natural decrease (pyramid wider 3/4 way up)

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Managing Rapid Pop Growth

Rapid Growth Impacts

Social- services (eg healthcare. education) cant cope with rapid increase- not everone gets access to them // not enough houses for everyone- people forced into overcowded makeshift settlements- cause health problems- not always got sewers/ clean water // food shortages

Economic- not enough jobs for everyone in country- unimployment increases // increased povery- many born into already poor families

Political- most of pop- kids, government focuses more on policies important to youth eg education // fewer older people- les focus on policies for them eg pensions // governement has to make policies to control popso economic/ social impacts dont get worse.

Strategies to Control 

Birth Control Programmes- some gov have laws on how many kids can have // offer free contraception/ sex ed // family planning from gov- helps towards sustainable development

Immigration Laws- limit no. people allowed to immigrate // selective about who let into country (eg let in fewer people at child-bearing age)- slows down pop growth

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  • Largest pop. in world
  • One child policy
  • Couples with only one child- benefits eg longer maternity leave, better housing, free education
  • Couples with more than one child- fine

Exceptions to Policy

  • rural areas- if 1st child a girl allowed another or physical disability- need to work on farm
  • If one parent has a disability 
  • Both parents are only children (more to look after elders)


  • Prevented up to 400mil births- fertility rate (amount of kids woman has in life) drop from 5.7 to 1.8
  • Some think wasnt OCP that slowed pop growth, say older policies about leaving longer gaps between kids more effective and Chineese people want fewer children anyway as they've become more wealthy
  • Helps toward sustainable development
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Country made up of thousands of islands // 4th largest pop in world- over 240mil

Pop not distibuted evenly- most people live on Island of Java

Led to social and economic problems on densly pop islands (eg lack of services)

Indonesion government started transmaigration policy in 1960s

Millions moved from densley pop isnalds to less dense pop islands eg Sumatra


  • Millions moved but pop still isnt much more evenly distributed
  • Not all people who moved escaped povery (no skills to farm land or land too poor to farm on new land)
  • lots of people moved to pop. areas- conflict between natives and migrants
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Managing Aging Pop

Higher dependancy rate (dependant pop: <16 and >65) (MEDCs)

Economic- working pop pay tax that gov use to pay state pensions/ retirement homes etc- taxes would have to go up- more pensions/ healthcare // County's economy grow more slowly- less money spent on things to help it grow (eg buisness/ education)  because being spent on things like retirement homes.

Social- Healthcare services stretched more- more older people need it // people need to spend more time working as unpain carers for older family members- less leisure time/ more stresses/ worried // people may have fewer kis, can't afford them with dependant older relatives- drop in BR // the more old people, the lower the pension provided- people have to retire later- cant afford to get by on state pension.

Strategies  ( Last 2 Help towards sustainable development- dont chane pop size)

Encouraging Larger Families- eg in Italy- cash rewards for women who have more kids- increases no. of young people- when start to work, larger working pop to pay taxes and support aging pop.// Encouraging Immigration of foreign Youth- increases working pop // Raising Retirement Age- stay in work longer- contubute to state pensions, claim pension less time // Raising taxes- increasing money available to support

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People living longer- better medical care/ higher life expectancy- proportion of elders going up

Baby boom 40s-60s now creating pension boom // since 70s fewer babies born- fewer youths, proportion of elders up


  • more elders in poverty- working pop not large enough for decent pension, many people- no other savings
  • Gov struggling to pay already low state pension- taxes from working pop not enough to cover pension costs- as pop ages getting worse
  • Health service under pressure- elders need more medical care than youths 

Strategies (too early to tell if working)

  • Raise retirement age- work for longer- more money for tax, less people for pension
  • encourage immigration of youths- increase no. tax payers- helps pay pensions/services
  • Encourage births- tax credits for parents who go back to work after child born- more affordable to have kids
  • Encourage private pensions- tax breaks for some kinds, not as many people dependant on state
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Pop Movement

Immigration- move into an area- called immigrants

Emigration- leave an area- called emigrants

Push Factors- make you want to leave

Usually negative eg not able to find work, war, natural disaster etc

Pull Factors- attract you to a destination

Usually positive eg job oppotrunities, better standard of living, higher wages etc

Positive Impacts- Source Country: reduce demand on services // money sent back ny emigrants // Receiving Country: increased labour // Migrants pay taxes- help fund services

Negative Impacts- Source Country: labour shortage (working age leave) // skill shortage (edicated people leave) // aging pop // Receiving Country: local/ immigrants compete for jobs- tension/ conflict // increased demand for services (overcrowding in schools/ hostpitals) // leakage- money sent out of the country back to origin country- not into economy

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Migration within and to EU

Economic Migrations Within EU

People from Eu country can live/ work in any other EU country. In 2004 10 eastern european countires joined. Since then more then 1/2mil moved from POland to EU

Push factors (from Poland)

  • high unemployment (around 19%)
  • low av. wage (around 1/3 EU average)
  • housing shortages

Pull factors (to UK)

  • ease of migration- in 2004 allowed unlimited migration
  • more work/ higher wages (bigger demand for tradesmen eg plumbers)
  • good exchange rate (Pound worth alot of Polish money so a few £'s home- big difference)
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Migration within and to EU cont.

Refugees Migrate to EU

Huge no. from Africa to EU, many tried to get into spain illegally and forced back in 2001.

Many refugees from wars in central/western african countries eg 2mil peole forced from homes- civil war in Sierra Leone

Only push factors for African war refugees

Impacts in African Countires

  • working pop reduced- fewer people contribute to economy
  • families seperated from fleeing from war

Impacts in Spain

  • Social tension- immagrant/locals 
  • more unskilled workers in spain- filled gaps in labout market
  • average wage for unskilled fallen because so many people who want jobs
  • BR increase- so many young immigrants
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