Population Change

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  • Created by: Han2812
  • Created on: 05-06-13 11:57

China's One Child Policy


  • Introduced in 1970s to slow down population growth, so there will be enough food
  • Population in 1980s was over 1 billion, rose to 1.3 billion in 2011


ONE CHILD: Priority housing, pensions + family benefits, 5 - 10% pay rise, free education for the one child

TWO CHILDREN: Pay for education, 10% salary decrease, women forced to have abortions as late as 9 months or sterlised

Problems: Forced abortions, female infanticide, gender imbalance

Benefits: Population growth has slowed, since 1970s 400 million few people have been born

Working?: YES

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The Gambia - Youthful Population


  • To slow down the population growth
  • Decrease birth rates



  • Better health care for children and mothers
  • More children encouraged to attend school - less desire to have children
  • Contraception more avaliable via NGO's - teach awareness of the benefits + safe sex
  • Acceptence of Islamic Leaders - allow men to have more than one wife
  • Execptance + education of family planning


  • Fall in birth rates - 40:1000 to 33:1000
  • Fall in fertility rates - 1990s - 7   2006 - 6 and falling
  • Fall in population growth - 4.2% to 3%
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Ageing Population - France



  • In stage 4 of DTM - High Dependancy Ratio
  • Natural decrease has dropped - 0.6% in 1960s and 0.3% in 2010


  • 3 years paid leave (mothers or fathers)
  • Full time school starts at 3yrs - paid for by the government
  • Day care for under 3s - subsidised by the government
  • The more children a women has, the earlier she is allowed to retire

Working?: NOT REALLY

Populations age as life expectancy increases due to better health care and healthier life styles

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Migration in the EU - Poland to UK




  • 0.5 million people moved to the UK (half a million = 500,000)
  • Most to find employment - much better pay than in Poland ( 5x more)
  • Entitled to UK health benefits - better health care and health
  • More jobs in the UK - lack of jobs in Poland
  • Send the money back home
  • Learn new skills

Good for the UK:

  • Get workers so work for less money - skilled workers
  • Do jobs UK workers wont eg cleaning
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Population Terms

Birth Rates: The number of live births per 1000 per year

Death Rates: The number of deaths per 1000 per year

Natural Increase: Birth rate is higher than Death Rate -> D.R - B.R = +score

Natural Decrease: Death rate is higher than Birth Rate -> B.R - D.R = - score

Migration: The movement of people either into or out of an area

Immigration: Movement of people into country from another

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DTM - Demographic Transition Model


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Reasons for Birth Rates in EU and Africa

Low Birth Rates in Europe:

Social: Family planning is practised by nearly all couples. Women are well educated and career orientated. One or two children are accepted as a normal family size

Economic: Children are unlikely to contriute to fmily income. The average cost to bring up a child in the UK in 2005 was £60,000

Political: Government support and finance family planning

High Birth Rates in Africa

Social: Family planning is not widely used especially among the poor. Many women revieve little formal eduation and marry young. Famillies of 5 or more children are considered normal

Economic: Children are expected to work to contribute to family income. One child who does well may lift the family out of poverty

Political: Some governments and religions do not approve of birth control (eg Islam). Family planning clinics are not always avaliable, especially in rural areas

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Migration: Movement of people to live in a different place, either in the same or different country

Rual Areas - Push Factors: 

  • Poverty, working only on farms, land shortages - overuse and droughts cause famine and food shortages, lack of services + shortage of clean water, remoteness

Urban Areas - Push Factors:

  • Better paid jobs, work in factories, offices or shops, reliable food supplies, more facilities - schools,hospitals,safe water + electricity, better roads, dynamic feel - always changing 


  • New skills, transfer of knowledge, culture exchange and workers willing to take jobs no one wants in the recieving countries. Earn more money, send it back home, higher standard of living


  • Loss of labour, trained people and family separation in home countries. Strain on resourses and racial tension and discrimination in recieving country
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Population Growth

Problems with Population Growth:

  • More demand for food - over cultivation, over grazing - less vegitation - desertification
  • More demand for fuel/wood - trees and bushes cut down - more CO2 in the atmosphere
  • More demand for minerals

Controlling Population Growth - Birth Rates:

  • Family planning information and services
  • Improved healthcare - fewer children die, don't need to have as many children
  • Migration to cities - more expensive to have children in cities, no need for many children
  • Better education
  • Better employment prospects - education and employment for women
  • Later marraiges
  • Income more distributed - better standard of living

Countries trying to control population:

China's One Child Policy, The Gambia, Indonesia, France, England

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