Population Case Studies

GCSE Geography AQA Spec A - Population - Case Studies

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Give an example of a country and its strategy to c

  • China, population of 1.3 billion (largest in the world)
  • One-child policy introduced in 1979
  • Couples encouraged to only have one child.
  • Couples that did only have one child were given benefits such as longer maternity leave, better housing and free education for the child.
  • Couples that had more than one child lost all benefits and salary was fined.
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What problems did this strategy cause?

  • Women were forced toi have abortions as late as ninth month of pregnancy.
  • Pressure was placed on women's conscience and feelings
  • The government had power over people's private lives.
  • Sons were often preferred over daughters, leaving some girls disowned or allowed to die.
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What were the benefits to this strategy?

  • The predicted famine did not happen.
  • There were enough food and jobs for people.
  • Increased standard of living
  • Less poverty
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Have there been any changes since to this strategy

  • In rural areas, couples are allowed a second child if first was a girl or physically disabled.
  • If one of the parents has a disability, a second child is allowed.
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Give an example of a country and their strategy to

  • France
  • Pronatal policy

Couples are given a range of incentives to have children:

  • 3 years paid parental leave for either parent
  • Full-time schooling starts at age 3, fully paid for by the government
  • Day care for under 3s is subsidised by the government.
  • The more children a women has, the earlier she can retire.

It has had some effect of producing a more favourable age structure and dependency ratio.

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Give an example of a common international migratio

Poland to the UK

Push Factors:

  • High unemployment in Poland
  • Low average wages
  • Housing shortages

Pull Factors:

  • Ease of migration (Since Poland became part of the EU)
  • More work and higher wages
  • Good exchange rates
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What are the impacts on both the source and recipi

Impacts on Poland: 

  • Population and birth rate fell
  • Shortage of workers
  • Economy boosted by money sent home

Impacts on UK:

  • Population rose
  • Economy boosted slightly 
  • New shops and businesses
  • Less jobs available
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Give an example of a forced migration:

North Africa to EU (Spain)

  • 2 million people forced from their homes because of war in Sierra Leone between 1991 and 2002.
  • The migrants were refugees.
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What were the impacts on the source and recipient

Impacts in African countries:

  • Working population reduced
  • Families separated

Impacts in Spain:

  • More unskilled workers which fill gaps in labour
  • Average wages for unskilled jobs fell
  • Birth rate increased
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