Give an example of a country and its strategy to c
- China, population of 1.3 billion (largest in the world)
- One-child policy introduced in 1979
- Couples encouraged to only have one child.
- Couples that did only have one child were given benefits such as longer maternity leave, better housing and free education for the child.
- Couples that had more than one child lost all benefits and salary was fined.
What problems did this strategy cause?
- Women were forced toi have abortions as late as ninth month of pregnancy.
- Pressure was placed on women's conscience and feelings
- The government had power over people's private lives.
- Sons were often preferred over daughters, leaving some girls disowned or allowed to die.
What were the benefits to this strategy?
- The predicted famine did not happen.
- There were enough food and jobs for people.
- Increased standard of living
- Less poverty
Have there been any changes since to this strategy
- In rural areas, couples are allowed a second child if first was a girl or physically disabled.
- If one of the parents has a disability, a second child is allowed.
Give an example of a country and their strategy to
- Pronatal policy
Couples are given a range of incentives to have children:
- 3 years paid parental leave for either parent
- Full-time schooling starts at age 3, fully paid for by the government
- Day care for under 3s is subsidised by the government.
- The more children a women has, the earlier she can retire.
It has had some effect of producing a more favourable age structure and dependency ratio.
Give an example of a common international migratio
Poland to the UK
- High unemployment in Poland
- Low average wages
- Housing shortages
- Ease of migration (Since Poland became part of the EU)
- More work and higher wages
- Good exchange rates
What are the impacts on both the source and recipi
Impacts on Poland:
- Population and birth rate fell
- Shortage of workers
- Economy boosted by money sent home
Impacts on UK:
- Population rose
- Economy boosted slightly
- New shops and businesses
- Less jobs available
Give an example of a forced migration:
North Africa to EU (Spain)
- 2 million people forced from their homes because of war in Sierra Leone between 1991 and 2002.
- The migrants were refugees.
What were the impacts on the source and recipient
Impacts in African countries:
- Working population reduced
- Families separated
Impacts in Spain:
- More unskilled workers which fill gaps in labour
- Average wages for unskilled jobs fell
- Birth rate increased