POPULATION - pyramids


Showing the population structure of a country - how many of a particular age group and sex.

High life expectancy = taller, all bars longer.

Lower birth rate = Bottom more undercut, fewer in youngest category

Birth rate fall causes - emancipation of women, use of contraception, industrial changes (fewer kids needed for farming)

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Dependency ratio changes - more youthful population = many more young dependants, much higher dependency ratio, more <15s depending on the working population.

Impacts of an ageing population 

  • SOCIAL: healthcare services stretched more, people spend more time looking after relatives, fewer children, can't afford kids with cost of relatives.
  • ECONOMIC: smaller pensions, retirement age higher, increasing taxes (more healthcare and pensions to pay for), economy grows more slowly - more money spent than earned.

Impacts of international migration

  • DESTINATION COUNTRY: bigger labour force, taxes paid by migrant workers, competition for jobs = conflict, increased demand for services = overcrowding, some money sent home instead of spent in country.
  • ORIGINAL COUNTRY: less pressure on services, money sent back, labour shortage, skills shortage, high proportion of older people left.
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