POPULATION - pyramids
Showing the population structure of a country - how many of a particular age group and sex.
High life expectancy = taller, all bars longer.
Lower birth rate = Bottom more undercut, fewer in youngest category
Birth rate fall causes - emancipation of women, use of contraception, industrial changes (fewer kids needed for farming)
POPULATION - dtm
Dependency ratio changes - more youthful population = many more young dependants, much higher dependency ratio, more <15s depending on the working population.
Impacts of an ageing population
- SOCIAL: healthcare services stretched more, people spend more time looking after relatives, fewer children, can't afford kids with cost of relatives.
- ECONOMIC: smaller pensions, retirement age higher, increasing taxes (more healthcare and pensions to pay for), economy grows more slowly - more money spent than earned.
Impacts of international migration
- DESTINATION COUNTRY: bigger labour force, taxes paid by migrant workers, competition for jobs = conflict, increased demand for services = overcrowding, some money sent home instead of spent in country.
- ORIGINAL COUNTRY: less pressure on services, money sent back, labour shortage, skills shortage, high proportion of older people left.