Describe the demographic transition model


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what are the advantages of the model

  • Its dynamic - it shows changes through time
  • It describes what has happen in the UK
  •  USA and many other western countries have also been through the same stages
  • Some countries are going through it at the moment - Newly Industrialised Countries, like South Korea
  • Explains what has happened
  • Explains why it happened in that particular sequence
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what are the disadvantages of the model?

  • Its Eurocentric
  • Based on western Europe
  • Based on events from the past
  • Its had to have been adapted since it was used – Stage 5 was added
  • Not relevant to countries that aren’t industrialized
  • Some LEDCs have imported medicine/sanitation techniques from MEDCs
  • Does not give a timeline for how long it will take – 260 years for UK but South Korea seems to be rushing through in decades
  • It doesn’t take migration rates into account
  • Many factors affect death rate such as; famine, natural disasters, war.
  • It doesn’t show Governments/Non-Government intervention
  • Countries census data could be inaccurate
  • DTM assumes all countries will go through stages in a certain order. Many countries in Africa seem to be in Stage 5 due to the HIV and Aids epidemic.
  • It cannot predict what will happen in the future E.g. Natural disasters
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Give examples of why population changes


  • baby boom 1940's
  • more contrecpetion
  • relgious views
  •  chairty work reduces death rate


  • child labour


  • Eu promote migration
  • one child policy
  • Russia offers sex days
  • Belfast has first abortion clinic in 2014
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What confucius and malthus's theories


  • population will need to be distributed to meet resources


  • population would exceed resource growth
  • without population control famine/ war would occur
  • the only solution is abstinence, sterilisation and home punishments for those that have children they can't support
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What are Boserup and Marxist theories


'Necessity is the mother of invention'
If you need it someone will invent it


Only in places where food is not adequate does population become a problem.
Economic relations in Europe were to blame for the growing population
If society was well ordered population growth should bring wealth

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What are the club of Rome theories

A group of industrialists, scientists, economists and statesmen

They believe optimum growth will be at its peak In 100 years

Bought about the argument of sustainability

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Give an example of forced migration


More than 80,000 people were displaced as refugees across international borders in 2011. And there was 465,800 In 2012
The majority of refugees found shelter in four neighbouring countries
By late November in 2012 turkey was refuge to more than 123,700 refugees who were registered or waiting assistance
98,000 refugees in Jordan
Iraq hosted 60,300 Syrian refugees
Turkey has reportedly near or beyond tins capacity

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Give a 2nd example of forced migration


The volcanic eruption in 1995 caused 8 thousand of 12 thousand people in the population to flee the country

292 refugees moved to the United States and they were given temporary protected status which meant they could live and work there till threat subsidised

Only 2850 people remained on Montserrat during the height of the crisis

33,000 refugees moved to the Latin/Caribbean region alone after 15 years worth of eruptions

3000 people moved to Antigua

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Give an example of voluntary migration

Poland - EU

In 2004 Poland joined the EU
The EU allows free movement of labour between member countries
The UK government expected an influx of polish people because of the better lifestyle in the uk
62% of applicants came from Poland
Polish is the 3rd largest minority group

Push factors
Average unemployment around 40%
Average income in Poland was $12500 in the uk it is $30900

Pull factors
Unemployment in uk is 5.1%
Establishes polish community within UK
High demand for skilled and semi skilled labour

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Give a 2nd example of voluntary migration

Uk to Spain

Emigrants from UK tend to be older - 60% are over 45 years of age
74,636 British pensioners live in Spain

Why are they migrating ?

Mediterranean climate
Communication networks
Cost of living
Property market
Health care
Living longer
Leisure facilities
Expatriate community

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What can prevent voluntary migration

Government restrictions
Lack of money
Lack of skills and education
Threat of family and heavily family responses

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What can be reasons for returning

Racial tension in new area
Earned sufficient money to return
To be reunited with family
Causes of international migration removed

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Reasons. Why you can't return

Insufficient money to afford transport
Standard of loving lower still
Racial , religious or political tensions

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Ebola epidemic

660 people died by September 2014
Know known cure
Most affected areas - Liberia and seirra leone
0.049% of sera leone affected
0.07% of Liberia affected
Number of cases could reach 1.4 million y January 2015
Who estimated 70% fatality rate in west Africa

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Population growth figures

1950 2 billion people now there is 7 billion
Expected to grow another 1 million in the next 12 years
100 million people suffering chronic hunger
Already consuming 50% of worlds resources
There are more than 100 million women who want to limit their pregnancy
50% of uk population was due to net migration

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