Population

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Definitions

Natural Increase- The difference between birth rate and death rate

Birth rate- The amount of babies born each year per 1000 in the population

Death rate- The amount of people who die each year per 1000 in the population

Youthful population- A large part of the population is under 15

Fertlility rate- The average number of children each woman gives birth to 

Replacement rate- The amount of people needed to be born to replace the population

Ageing population- A large proportion of the population is aging because of rising life expectancy and falling birth rates

Net migration balance- Difference between emigration and immigration

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Demographic Transition Model

STAGE 1

HIGH BIRTH RATE

FLUCTUATING DEATH RATE

LIMITED POPULATION GROWTH. LOW TOTAL POPULATION

STAGE 2

HIGH BIRTH RATE

FALLING DEATH RATE, BUT STILL HIGH

INCREASING TOTAL POPULATION


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Dependant Population & Population Pyramid

The population that are not economically active depend on the economically active

Convex and concave pyrmaid

LEDC'S such as Cuba 

MEDC's such as UK

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Overpopulation

WHEN THERE ARE TOO MANY PEOPLE FOR AVAILABLE RESOURCES

CAUSES

Population growth

Large dependant population

Lack of resources

Low level of technology

PROBLEMS

Social: Youth labour, homlessness, food shortages and migration

Environmental: Waste, deforestation, overgrazing and pollution

Economic: Lack of jobs and poverty

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Ageing Population

CAUSES

Drop in birth rates

Increasing life expectancy 

4th stage of DTM

Improved healthcare

IMPACTS

Social: Change in services, elderly housing, pensions income, shools shut, mental illness

Economic: Housing, jobs created, prive health benefits, discounts, lack of jobs for young

Political: Nhs need more money, grey vote, pensions increase, crime increase, no care

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Demographic Transition Model Continued

STAGE 3

FALLING BIRTH RATE

LOW DEATH RATE

RAPIDLY INCREASING TOTAL POPULATION

STAGE 4

FLUCTUATING BIRTH RATE

LOW DEATH RATE

LARGE TOTAL POPULATION

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Overpopulation Continued

BENEFITS

Improves the demographic stage

Young workforce= more money = better life quality

Educated and skilled workforce

SOLUTIONS

Birth control programs

a) Laws 

b) Family Planning

c) Incentives

Imigration laws

a) Limits- Jobs and democracy

b) Selective- Age, skills and language

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Ageing Population Continued

SOLUTIONS

Embrace new technology

Increase retirement and taxes

Encourge immigration

Support carers

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