The worlds population is growing rapidly, getting faster and faster.
Birth rate - the number of live babies born per thousand of the population each year
Death rate - the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year
The population size of a country is also affected by migration - movement of people from one area to another.
The Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
STAGE 1- birth rate; high. death rate; high. population growth; zero. population size; low and steady.
STAGE 2- birth rate; high. death rate; rapidly falling. population growth;very high. population size; rapidly increasing.
STAGE 3 - birth rate; rapidly falling. death rate; slowly falling. population growth; high. population size; increasing.
STAGE 4 - birth rate; low. death rate; low. population growth; zero. population size; high and steady.
STAGE 5 - birth rate; slowly falling. death rate; low. population growth; negative. population size; slowly falling.
Population growth and structure
STAGE 1 - Birth rate is high because there is no use of contraception and people have lots of babies because many infants die. Death rate is due to poor healthcare. Life expectancy is low so population is mostly young people.
STAGE 2 - Birth rate is high because no use of contraception also lots of the children are produced to work on farms. death rate falls due to increased healthcare. Life expectancy has increased but there are still more younger people than old.
STAGE 3 - Birth rate is rapidly falling due to more power in women, they have more jobs and also contraception is used. Death rate falls again to more medical advances. population growth is high and more are living older.
STAGE 4 - Birth rate is low because of increased urbanisation and wealth is improved. Death rate is low. Life expectancy is high so more are living to be older.
STAGE 5 - Birth rate is falling because less money to spend on children, people are dependent of elderly relatives. Death rate is low. There are now more older people than young people.
Managing rapid population growth
Rapid population has social, economic and political impacts.
Social - Services like healthcare and education can't cope with the increase of peope.
Children have to work to support large families.
There is not enough housing for everyone.
There are food shortages if the country can't grow enough food or import.
Economic - There are not enough jobs so unemployment increases.
Theres an increase in poverty.
Political - Because there are more young people than old, the government concentrates more on the needs of the young and ignores the older generations needs like pensions.
Different strategies to control rapid population growth;
Birth control programmes- The government is giving free concraception and sex education for younger people. Also they help couples plan their future.
Immigration laws- Governments can limit the amount of people that are allowed to immigrate and be selective of who they want.
Managing ageing population
An ageing population impacts on future development
Economic - People pay tax which goes towards pensions for the elderly, because theres an increase in older people, the tax will have to be increased.
The economy would grow more slowly because less money is being spent on things that help to economy.
Social - Healthcare services are stretched because more older people need more healthcare.
People will need to spend more time working as unpaid carers for older family members.
People many have fewer children.
People will have to retire later because they can't afford to get by on a state pension.
Strategies - Encouraging larger families and encouraging the immigration of younger people which increases the working population. (Not sustainable)
Raisng the reitrement age and raising taxes for the working population. (Sustainable)
When people move into an area, its called immigration. When people leave an area, its called emmigration.
Migration happens because of push and pull factors -
Push factors are things about a persons place of origin that makes them want to move like; Not being able to find a job, poor living conditions, war and natural disasters.
Pull factors are things about a persons destination that attracts them like; Job oppotunities and better standard of living.
Migration has positive and negative impacts on both countries, source and receiving.
Source country - P; reduces demand on services like healthcare and education, money is sent back to the source country by emmigrants. N; labour shortage, skills shortage and an ageing population.
Receiving country - P; Increased labour force, migrant workers pay tax that help fund services. N; competition for jobs, increased demand on services and not all money earn't is spend in the receiving country.
Migration within and to the EU
An example of movement within the EU (Poland and the UK)
Push factors from Poland - high unemployment, low average pay and housing shortages
Pull factors to the UK - ease of migration, more work and higer wages and good exchange rates.
Impacts in Poland; Population fell by 0.3%, there was a shortage of workers and the economy was boosted by the money sent home from emigrants.
Impacts in the UK; Population went up slightly, boosted uk economy, new shops selling Polish products and attendance to Catholic churches went up.
Refugees migrate to the EU- Many african emigrants tried to cross the mediterranean into spain because of Wars in central and western African countries. Spain refused entry when they found out.
Impacts in Africa - Working population reduced and families seperated
Impacts in Spain - social tensions between immigrants and spanish people, more unskilled workers, average wage had fallen and birth rate increased.