Population Change

  • Created by: zuljupri
  • Created on: 15-04-17 12:19

Population Growth

Factors of population size:

Birth rate- number of babies born per thousand of the population per year.

Death rate- number of deaths per thousand of the population per year.

Demographic Transition Model (DTM):

Stage 1: High birth rate/High Death rate/No population growth/Low Population size.

Stage 2: High birth rate/Falling Death rate/High Population growth/Increasing Population Size.

Stage 3: Falling Birth Rate/Falling Death rate/High Population growth/Increasing Population Size.

Stage 4: Low Birth Rate/Low Death Rate/No Population Growth/High Population Size.

Stage 5: Falling Birth Rate/Low Death Rate/Decreasing Population Size.

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Population Structure

Stage 1: Ethiopia/Niger

  • High Birth Rate because no use of contraception and high infant mortality rate.
  • High Death Rate because of poor healthcare.
  • Population Structure is mostly young people due to low Life Expectancy.

Stage 2: Sri Lanka/Bolivia

  • High Birth Rate because no use of contraception and children working on farms.
  • Falling Death Rate because of improved healthcare.
  • Population Structure- more young people than old people but still low Life Expectancy.

Stage 3: Uruguay/China

  • Rapidly Falling Birth Rate due to women working and better education. Manufacturing economy and less children needed to work. Use of contraception increases.
  • Falling Death Rate due to medical advances.
  • Population Structure- higher Life Expectancy
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Population Structure

Stage 4: Canada/USA/UK

  • Low Birth Rate due to urbanisation, improving wealth, less money for children.
  • Low Death Rate due to first class healthcare.
  • Population Structure- High Life Expectancy so an ageing population.

Stage 5: Germany

  • Falling Birth Rate because less money for children due to dependant elderly relatives.
  • Low and Fluctuating Death Rate.
  • No Population Growth as it is a decreasing population.
  • Population structure- more old people than young people.
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Population Growth Impacts

Social Impacts:

  • Lack of access to healthcare or education.
  • Children have to work and so miss out on education.
  • Not enough houses so they live in settlements and makeshift houses.
  • Food shortages.

Economic Impacts:

  • Aren't enough jobs so unemployment increases.
  • Increased poverty due to poor birth circumstances.

Political Impacts:

  • Young Population means government policies focuses on young people.
  • Fewer older people meaning government lacks focus on policies for older people.
  • Government makes policies to get population growth under control.
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Managing Population Growth

Sustainable Development- developing in a way that allows people today to get things they need without stopping people in the future from getting what they need.

Birth Control Programmes:

  • Aim to reduce birth rates.
  • Some governments have laws on the number of children couples can have.
  • Governments offer free contraception and sex education.
  • Means population won't increase helping sustainable development.

Immigration Laws:

  • Aims to control immigration.
  • Governments can limit the number of people emigrating.
  • Governments can be selective on who can get in, fewer children = fewer people.
  • Slows down population growth rate.
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China's One Child Policy- CASE STUDY

Birth Control Programme:

  • One-child Policy was introduced in 1979.
  • All couples are strongly encouraged to have only one child.
  • One-child couples are given benefits like longer maternity leave, better housing, free education.
  • Couples are fined part of their income if they have more than one child.
  • In rural areas, couples are allowed to have a second child if the first is a girl, or is disabled.
  • If one parent is disbaled or if both parents are the only child, they are allowed to have 2 children so they are enough people to look after their parents.


  • Policy prevented 400 million births.
  • The fertility rate dropped from 5.7 (1970) to 1.8 (2017).

One-Child policy helps toward sustainable development because of slower population growth.

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Ageing Population

Ageing Population- a population that has a high proportion of older people.

  • More older people than younger people because lower birth rate and higher life expectancy.
  • Ageing population countries are in the Stage 5 of the DTM.
  • Older people are supported by a working population and dependant on younger people.

Economic Impacts:

  • Increased taxes to support state pensions of the ageing population.
  • Slow growth of the economy due to funding for older people.

Social Impacts:

  • Healthcare services are under increased pressure to take care of an ageing population.
  • May lead to a lower birth rate because of dependant older relatives.
  • Higher retirement age due to inabilty to get a state pension.
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UK Ageing Population - CASE STUDY

In 2005, 16% was over 65. In 2041, 25% will be over 65.

Causes of Ageing Population:

  • Increasing Life Expectancy due to medical advances and improved living standards.
  • Decreasing Birth Rate due to improved wealth and the 'pensioner boom'

Effects of Ageing Population:

  • More elderly people living in poverty due to small working population.
  • Government is struggling to get enough taxes to pay for state pensions.
  • NHS is under increased pressure to cope with an ageing population- average hospital stay is 13 nights for people over 75.

Strategies for Ageing Population:

  • Raising the retirement age- by 2046, the retirement age will be 68.
  • Encourage immigration of young people to the UK. 80% of immigrants EU countries under 34
  • Encourage the use of private pensions.
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Population Movements

Immigration- people moving into an area.

Emigration- people exiting an area.

Push Factors- things in the source country which makes them decide to move.

  • Unemployment Levels.
  • Poor Standard of Living
  • War/Natural Disaster

Pull Factors- things in the recieving country that attracts them to move.

  • Employment Opportunities.
  • Better Standard of Living
  • Economic migrants move from poor places to richer places. .
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Population Movements

Positive Impacts on Source Country:

  • Reduced demand on services.
  • Money is sent back by emigrants.

Positive Impacts on Recieving Country;

  • Increased labour force.
  • Immigrants pay taxes that help to fund services.

Negative Impacts on Source Country:

  • Labour shortage and Skills Shortage.
  • Ageing Population - high proportion of older people left in the country.

Negative Impacts on Recieving Country:

  • Increased Competition for jobs - lead to tension and even conflict.
  • Increased demand for services- healthcare and education.
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EU Migration

Polish Push Factors and Impacts:

  • High unemployment rate - 19%.
  • Low average wages - 1/3 of average EU wage.
  • Housing Shortages - 300 houses per 1000 people.
  • £3bn sent home from abroad in 2006.
  • Shortage of workers, slowing growth of economy.
  • Poland population fell by 0.3% between 2003 and 2007.

British Pull Factors and Impacts:

  • Ease of migration- unlimited migration in 2004.
  • More work and higher wages.
  • Good exchange rates.
  • Increased population in UK.
  • Boosted the economy.
  • Most of the money was sent back to Poland.
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