1. Case Study
China - One Child Policy
2. About the One Child Policy
Prevented up to 400 million births.
Average number of children per women decreased from 5.7 in 1970 to 1.8 today.
Helped towards a sustainable environment: population growth has slowed down so fewer resources being used.
3. Economic Impacts
Fewer resources are being used
Both parents able to work so are financially better off
4. Social Impacts
Children get more time with their parents
5. Environmental Impacts
6. Negatives of the Policy
The population pyramid is lopsided as parents want boys to look after them in old age
- A large number of boys that are unmarried as there are less girls
Big gender gap of 60 million
Babies are aborted or abandoned
7. Incentives of following the policy.
Incentives of following the policy:
· Cash bonuses
· Longer maternity leave
· Free education
· Free medical care
· Better child care
· Preferential housing arrangements
9. Case Study
Transmigration: Indonesia (Non-birth Control Policy)
10. About Transmigration in Indonesia
A population policy that aims to move people from poverty into rural areas. Opportunity to improve the quality of their lives.
Hasn’t helped for a sustainable future: Only reducing impacts of population growth – the population is still getting bigger.
11. Ecomomic Impacts
Spreads poverty out
Resettlement is expensive
12. Social Impacts
Eases overcrowding of people
New migrants lacked skills to farm the land
Traditional land rights ignored
13. Environmental Impacts
Acceleration of soil erosion and deforestation
14. Political Impacts
Encouraged the government to increase national security and control people to outer lands
15. Case Study
Ageing Populations - UK
16. About the Ageing Population in the UK
In 2005, 16% of the population over 65
By 2041 this could be 25%
More people dependant on the working population
Life expectancy increasing: 81.5 years- women and 77.2 for men.
Baby boom generation are now retiring
Birth rate decreased since the 1970s
17. Problems of an Ageing Population
More elderly living in poverty – working population not large enough to pay pensions
Government struggling to pay state pensions (tax paid by working population is not enough)
Health service is under pressure, elderly need more healthcare than younger people
18. Coping with an Ageing Population
Raise the retirement age - by 2046 the retirement age with be 68 for both men and women. People work longer meaning more taxes are paid to support the elderly generation.
Encouraging young immigrants. 84% of immigrants in 2004 are 34 or under. Increases number of people paying taxes.
Encourage women to have children – more working class to support the dependant.
Take out private pensions so people won’t be so dependent on the state pension.
8. Disincentives to follow the policy
Disincentives for not following the policy:
· Lost privileges
· Sacked from job
· Heavy fines
· Raising age of marriage
· Forced abortions and sterilisations
· Quota of births in a community
· Granny police – monitored birth control
19. Case Study
Immigration within the EU: (Poland)
20. Push and Pull Factors from Poland and to the U
Push factors from Poland
· High unemployment – 19%
· Low average wages – one third of the average EU wage
· Housing shortages – just over 300 houses for 1000 people.
Pull factors to the UK
· Ease of migration
· More work and higher wages - big demand for tradesmen
· Good exchange rate –the pound worth a lot more the polish currency
21. Impacts on Poland and the UK
Impacts on Poland
· Population of Poland fell by 0.3% between 2004 and 2007
· Shortage of workers in Poland
· Economy boosted by money sent back to Poland from the UK – about (Euro)3 billion in 2006
Impacts on the UK
· Population increased
· Immigration boosted the economy – a lot of money sent back to Poland
· New shops opened (polish items)
· Catholic churches increased
22. Case Study
Immigration of Refugees
23. About the immigration
In 2001, 45,000 immigrants from Africa were caught and refused entry to Spain.
Many refugees from war. 2 million people forced out of homes due to the Sierra Leone war
24. Impacts on African Countries
Working population reduced – fewer people contributing to the economy
Families become separated
25. Impacts on Spain
Social tension between immigrants and the Spanish
More unskilled workers in Spain – filled in the gap
Average wages workers have fallen because so many people want the jobs
Birth rate increased (young immigrants)