Population Case Studies

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1. Case Study

China - One Child Policy

BIRTH CONTROL

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2. About the One Child Policy

  • China

  • Prevented up to 400 million births.

  • Average number of children per women decreased from 5.7 in 1970 to 1.8 today.

  • Helped towards a sustainable environment: population growth has slowed down so fewer resources being used.

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3. Economic Impacts

  • Fewer resources are being used

  • Both parents able to work so are financially better off

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4. Social Impacts

  • Children get more time with their parents

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5. Environmental Impacts

  • Less poverty

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6. Negatives of the Policy

  • The population pyramid is lopsided as parents want boys to look after them in old age

  • A large number of boys that are unmarried as there are less girls
  • Big gender gap of 60 million

  • Babies are aborted or abandoned

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7. Incentives of following the policy.

Incentives of following the policy:

·         Cash bonuses

·         Longer maternity leave

·         Free education

·         Free medical care

·         Better child care

·         Preferential housing arrangements

·   

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9. Case Study

Transmigration: Indonesia (Non-birth Control Policy)

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10. About Transmigration in Indonesia

  • A population policy that aims to move people from poverty into rural areas. Opportunity to improve the quality of their lives.

  • Hasn’t helped for a sustainable future: Only reducing impacts of population growth – the population is still getting bigger.

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11. Ecomomic Impacts

  • Spreads poverty out

  • Resettlement is expensive

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12. Social Impacts

  • Eases overcrowding of people

  • New migrants lacked skills to farm the land

  • Religion clashes

  • Traditional land rights ignored

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13. Environmental Impacts

  • Acceleration of soil erosion and deforestation

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14. Political Impacts

  • Encouraged the government to increase national security and control people to outer lands

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15. Case Study

Ageing Populations - UK

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16. About the Ageing Population in the UK

  • In 2005, 16% of the population over 65

  • By 2041 this could be 25%

  • More people dependant on the working population

  • Life expectancy increasing: 81.5 years- women and 77.2 for men.

  • Baby boom generation are now retiring

  • Birth rate decreased since the 1970s

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17. Problems of an Ageing Population

  • More elderly living in poverty – working population not large enough to pay pensions

  • Government struggling to pay state pensions (tax paid by working population is not enough)

  • Health service is under pressure, elderly need more healthcare than younger people

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18. Coping with an Ageing Population

  • Raise the retirement age - by 2046 the retirement age with be 68 for both men and women. People work longer meaning more taxes are paid to support the elderly generation.

  • Encouraging young immigrants. 84% of immigrants in 2004 are 34 or under. Increases number of people paying taxes.

  • Encourage women to have children – more working class to support the dependant.

  • Take out private pensions so people won’t be so dependent on the state pension.

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8. Disincentives to follow the policy

Disincentives for not following the policy:

·         Lost privileges

·         Sacked from job

·         Heavy fines

·         Raising age of marriage

·         Forced abortions and sterilisations

·         Quota of births in a community

·         Granny police – monitored birth control

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19. Case Study

Immigration within the EU: (Poland)

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20. Push and Pull Factors from Poland and to the U

Push factors from Poland

·         High unemployment – 19%

·         Low average wages – one third of the average EU wage

·         Housing shortages – just over 300 houses for 1000 people.

Pull factors to the UK

·         Ease of migration

·         More work and higher wages -  big demand for tradesmen

·         Good exchange rate –the pound worth a lot more the polish currency

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21. Impacts on Poland and the UK

Impacts on Poland

·         Population of Poland fell by 0.3% between 2004 and 2007

·         Shortage of workers in Poland

·         Economy boosted by money sent back to Poland from the UK – about (Euro)3 billion in 2006

Impacts on the UK

·         Population increased

·         Immigration boosted the economy – a lot of money sent back to Poland

·         New shops opened (polish items)

·         Catholic churches increased

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22. Case Study

Immigration of Refugees

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23. About the immigration

  • In 2001, 45,000 immigrants from Africa were caught and refused entry to Spain.

  • Many refugees from war. 2 million people forced out of homes due to the Sierra Leone war

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24. Impacts on African Countries

  • Working population reduced – fewer people contributing to the economy

  • Families become separated

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25. Impacts on Spain

  • Social tension between immigrants and the Spanish

  • More unskilled workers in Spain – filled in the gap

  • Average wages workers have fallen because so many people want the jobs

  • Birth rate increased (young immigrants)

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