- Stage 1 of DTM.
- Pop= 33.4 million, Pop desity = half of that of the UK
- Uganda should be wealthy because it could support a large population, has hydroelectric power, has metal ores and fertile soil - exports coffee, tobacco, suagr and tea.
- GDP= $1300- not wealthy because economy is based on export of primary products- global supllies and prices vary. Government tax also varies.
- Government dont have enough tax to spend on education and health care so BR, DR and IM are affected,
- Pop doubling time = 19 years. 87% rural. Large families because people marry young and have children younger.
- Death rate low - UNICEF provide child vaccines for killer infections
- IM halved in 20 years to 63.7.
- LE= 53 years - HIV/AIDs, malaria, typhoid, cholera, poor living conditions.
- Schools cost beyond primary school and universities have limited places - 1 in 30,000.
- 17% of women attend school after 13- marry young and have children.
- Ugandas debt was canceled in 2 stages 2000 and 2005 - G8 canceled Ugandas debt, Uganda had more money, spent of healthcare and education. Wealth increased.
Uganda's Population Pyramid
Wide base, 16.7 million out of 33.4 million under the age of 15- youthful.
Narrow top= low life expectancy - 53 years.
- Pop= 60 million, Pop density= 243 per square km.
- GDP= $35,200 - wealthy.
- Wealthy because Uk has fertile soils and industrial background. Now has booming services sector and knowledge economy dominates.
- Uk is ageing because people are living longer due to living conditions and healthcare improving. People also choosing to have careers over childre/ before having children.
- 16.5% aged 0-14. An equal proportion was ages over 65.
- UK's median age was 40.5- one of worlds highest.
- Decreasing youthful pop and increasing ageing pop.
- Death rate 10 per 1000- fallen steadily. LE at birth = 80.
- FR has dropped because contrception, people waiting longer, choosing education and careers.
- 1940- steady flow of migration from commonwealth countired such as Jamacia and India.
- 2004- EU enlarged by 10 extra countries, surge of immigration to UK- Poland
- Since 1980 migration has contributed to more of the UK's pop growth as fertitility rate has fallen - so has natural increase.
- Stage 4 or 5 of DTM - Low birth rate and death rate.
- Pop pyramid- thinner base, wide middle and thinner top.
China's Population and one child policy
- largest population - 1.3 billion
- Policy introduced in 1982 - government feared that rapid pop growth would lead to poverty, so it ordered that every chinese family should have one child only- concequences came with having more than one child like reduced wages.
- By 2010 China's fertility rate had dropped to 1.54.
- Urbanisation may have reduced Chinas population growth rate any way- chinas annual growth rate in2010 was 0.49% because- BR dropped to 12.17 per 1000, DR was 6.9 per 1000 and political isolation from the rest of the world meant migration had little effect.
- It worked but now population is imbalanced (more males than females) and too low, so now the policy is the 2 child policy.
Thailand - family planning
- It was a success - population was meant to reach 67 million without family planning by 1990. It was almost a decade later when the population reached this point.
- Family planning launched in 1971.
- Mechai launched PDA - he was inspired by the use of contraception to lower birth/ fertility rates.
- Mechai organised pulic events like condom baloon blowing, he would give out free contraception in movie theatres, traffic jams- anywhere there was a crowd. Even Police were given boxes on condoms to be given out on new years eve - this programme was called 'Cops and Rubbers'
- Non scalpel vasectomies were available at festivals and public events.
- females wew allowed to be steralised.
- Free condoms are given out instead of after dinner mints in restaurants called 'Cabbages and Condoms'
- Condoms are given out on public transport, can be bought along with other methods such as the pill in shops and pharmacies.
- Children are educated about family planning and contraception from a young age- it is made fun by learning and playing games and incorporating contrception.
- Oulic health posters show ways you can get pregnant on them.
Thailand Family Planning Data
Growth rate :
- 1970 - 3.2%
- 1990 - 1.4%
- 1999 - 0.8%
- 1970 - 6.5 children per woman
- 1990 - 2.2
- 1999 - 1.7
- 1970 ~ 15%, 1990 ~ 68%, 1999 ~ 72%
Total population - 1970- 26.4m, 1990- 55.7m, 1999- 66.6m
GNP US $- 1970- 110, 1990- 1220, 1999- 1950
French Pro-Natalist Policy
Decline in fertitity- 1939 policy was introduced. It offered incentives for mothers who stayed at home and looked after children, substidising holidays, banning the sale of contraceptives (removed in 1967).
- payment of upto £1064 to couples having their third child.
- maternity grants
- maternity leave on nealry full pay for 20 weeks for first child and 40 weeks for third child.
- full tax benefits to parents until the youngest child turns 18.
As there are less young people working, there will not be enough money to fund the elderly wjich would lead to a decline in care standard.
- 1901- 7.8 young people to one elderly person
- 1950- 5.8 - due to ww2
- 1995- 4.4 young people to one elderly person.
Population Change in Rural Cornwall
- 4 million tourists visit Cornwall a year- scenery.
- Its in desperate need of regeneration.
- It has low wages and a declining rural economy and a lack or services and employment opportunities.
- Cornwall is the UKs fastest growing population- increased by 0.8% in 2010.
- A natural decrease- deaths in Cornwall attracts many retired people- creating an age imbalance. Life expectancy is above avarage.
- High inward migration - Those aged 50-59 preparing for retirement. families also moving to south west- families seek better quality of life.
- People often commute between their jobs and flats in cities and move to their main home in Cornwall during times off- main wage earners.
- Out migration by 16-29 year olds- declining number of full time jobs, these people are forced to go somewhere were there is employment- many go to uni elsewhere and stay there permanently.
- More elderly than youth- not enough to look after elderly.
- Remote, poor ifrastructure, no motorways, slow trains, has one airport but fares are expensive- finds it hard to attract investment.
- Decline in traditional employment.
- farming- falling farm prices, importing food.
- fishing- quotas, decline in fish stocks.
- mining- exhaustion of tin reserves, tin was more expensive to buy overseas from uk.
- quarrying- fewer larger quarries, cut back in workforce.
- Tourism is cornwalls biggest industry- employs 25% of cornwalls people.
- However, torism jobs are seasonal, poorly paid and part time.
- Visitor number vary.
- Houses are expensive, young people move where housing is cheaper, owner occupation is high 72%, less social housing.
- Tourism keeps vulnerable services alive.
- Few post 16 education.
- Turo is 3 hours away and it provides most of cornwalls care- cant access without car.