A measure of how poisonous a substance is, usually caused by enzyme inhibition.
A measure of the differing toxicities of a substance on different organisms.
A measure of the rate at which a material breaks down and therefore the length of time it remains in the environment.
The ease with which a material is broken down by living organisms, usually bacteria.
A measure of how easily a material moves in the environment.
The ease with which the molecules of a material separate and disperse into a liquid.
The increase in concentration of a substance in living tissue.
The progressive bioaccumulation of material along a food chain.
The process where the presence of two materials produces a greater effect than the sum of their individual effects.
A material that can cause changes in DNA structure.
A substance that can cause cancer.
A substance that interferes with gene function in a growing embryo so that a non-inherited birth abnormality is produced.
A pollutant released by human activities.
A pollutant produced by chemical reactions involving primary pollutants.
An atmospheric pollution event where pollutants from vehicles interact under sunny conditions when there is a temperature inversion.
A situation in the troposphere where the temperature is lower than normal so that warm air lies above cold air.
Clean Air Act (1956)
UK legislation to control smoke pollution.
The part of an urban area in which a Smoke Control Order restricts smoke emissions.
A tax to discourage the disposal of waste in landfill sites.
Flue gas desulfurisation (FGD)
Processes that remove oxides of sulfur from gaseous effluents.
A device fitted to vehicle exhausts to remove pollutants such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitration and unburnt hydrocarbons.
Insecticide pesticides, e.g. malathion and parathion.