• Created by: anaum16
  • Created on: 23-06-19 00:13

ozymandias by percy shelley

THEMESpride/ power of nature : proud and powerful leader who had statues built for himself but are now fading away showing it never lasts

form, language, structure  

  • sonnet written in iambic pentameter
  • volta (line 9) "and...appear"
  • second hand account distancing the reader from the king
  • built up of dessert imagery=insignificance of statue "sands stretched far away"

adjective:  "antique"=old and unheard of/ lost

ironic: "half sunk"=shows power of nature / human cant control damaging effects of time 

            "look on my works" / "nothing beside remains" nothing to look at/ doesn't last

             "decay"=death everything comes to an end/ losing significance

1 of 12

london by william blake

form dramatic monologue / "i" first person narrative = personal/real + ABAB regular rhym scheme reflecting his footsteps

structure - 1st 2 stanzas= focus on people he sees and hear /stanza 3=institutions he holds responsible / final stanza=how everyone even newborns are affected

THEME: power of humans

repetition "every" emphasises feelings of despair / eveeryone is affected 

"mind forged manacles" trapped in everyway even by thoughts

juxtaposition  "black'ning church"=corruption/ failed to look after people

"runs in blood down palace walls" reference to french revolution ~ those in palace are protected (powerful imagery)

" youthful harlots" marriage hearse"

2 of 12

the prelude by william wordsworth

form - 1st person narrative=personal     BLANK VERSE= sound serious and important

regular rythm= natural speech                THEME: POWER OF NATURE

structure- beggining tone= carefree        VOLTA= "when," = realisation / pause

 towards end narrator reflects on how the experience has changed him 

OXYMORON" troubled pleasure" narrators guilt

 CONTRAST "proud of his skill"=confidence REPETITION "huge"=fear  "struck"=struggle "tremble"=loss os confidence

SIMILE "like a swan"=graceful/peaceful/smooth ride

3 of 12

my last duchess bu robert browning

form -dramatic monologue/iambic pentameter (speech) THEME: POWER OF HUMANS 

        - rhyming couplets=duke's desire for control "wall'/"call"

        - enjambment suggest he gets carried away with his anger=unstable/ possesive

structure - duke is carried away by his ex rather than the art into confessing 

CONTROLLING: will't please you sit and look at her?' more of command than question

'my object' 'commands' power over her=controlling / cold "curtain...but I" control over                painting

'all smiles stopped together'  might have killed her               "courtesy"=jelousy

4 of 12

the charge of the light brigade by alfred tennyson

form-3rd person=story/real account    regular rythm=fast pace/energy of battle

rhyming couplets/triplets drive poem forward but is broken by unrhymed lines mirroring falling of soldiers/stumbling of horses 

lack of rhym scheme=chaos of war  THEME: REALITY OF WAR / IDENTITY

structure- chronological order= stanza 1-3>charge of the men /final> summary of heroism

repetition: "six hundred"= emphasis on amount of men involved/ 1 group=1 purpose

"valley of death"= no other outcome/saw it coming/led there by leader

"cannon"=men surrounded+resembles gunfire "noble"=heroism/bravery

personification: "jaws of death" "mouth of hell" monstors soldiers cant escape from

sibilance: "storm'd...shot and shell"= emphasis on ammunition flying towards them

rhetorical question: "when can their glory fade?" challenges reader/ remember

5 of 12

exposure by wilfred owen

form: 1st person plural "we"=collective voice/shared experience    regular rythm(ABBAC)

half rhymes=fading energy    each stanza ends w/half line=lack of hope/activity

structure: 8 stanza but no progression/end in same words"but nothing happens"=no change

ceasura"..." ","= waiting/nothing happens makes reader wait/silence

rhetorical q:"what are we doing here?"=point?/not whats expected

repetition:"dying"=killed by weather/hopeless/waiting for nature to kill them

juxtaposition:"black with snow"=purity+death>snow is evil/a killer

personification:"dawn...army"=nature is the real attacker

fricatives:"flowing flakes that flock"=harshness of snow/bombarded


6 of 12

storm on the island by seamus heaney

form:blank verse=conversational    first person plural"we"=collective 1 stanza=sturdy like house

structure:volta-"but no"=security to fear    caesura=slow pace>last moment of calm b4 storm

oxymoron:"exploding comfortably" juxtaposes idea of safety

simile:"spits like a tame cat"=familiar things becoming frightening

"bombarded"=attacked by "empty air"> power of nature

contrast:"huge nothing"vs "solid rock" in beggining

"you"=involves reader

onomatopeia:"blast"=forceful strength of the wind/danger&effects of storm


7 of 12

bayonet charge by ted hughes

form:enjambent/irregular rythm/uneven lines=struggle through mud

pronoun"he"=soldier universal figure        THEME:REALITY OF WAR

structure:starts in middle of action"suddenly"

1st stanza=soldier acting on instinct 2nd stanza=time stands still final stanza=thinking/gives up

repetition:"raw"=exposed to war/new(gather new soldiers)                                                          "h" sounds=hot/heavy breath as he runs

simile:"rifle numb as a smashed arm" / "sweating like molten rock...chest"=rifle is useless

            foreshadows dangers/bullet in chest

rhetorical q:"in what cold...second?"=lack of control/those in power dont care/realisation

listing: "king...ectetera"=reasons people  go to war / not worth it

8 of 12

remains by simon armitage

form:irregular rhym scheme=telling story   starts mid action"on another occasion"               colloquial language=chatty

1st person plural"we" changes to "i"=personal/confession

structure:begins as anecdote turns into description of mans death      volta (line 16)=guilt/ptsd

repetition:"somebody else" "three"=shifting blame    "i see"/ "week after week"=vivid/ptsd

"probably armed possibly not"=guilt     THEME:REALITY OF WAR/INNER CONFLICT

"tosses his guts back into his body"=desensitised

metaphore:"blood shadow"=forshadow memories that will haunt him

"his bloody life in my bloody hands" reference to macbeth/unable to rid guilt/cursing/respponsible for his death

9 of 12

war photographer by carol anne duffy

form:4 stanza/equal length/regular rhym scheme(ABBCDD)="set out in ordered rows" like photo

enjambment reflects gradual revealing of photo as it develops

structure:follows actions &thoughts of the photographer / (volta) 3rd stanza=specific death                                                      THEME:REALITY OF WAR/EFFECTS OF WAR

final stanza=the way his work is recieved

"ordered rows"=reels of film like war graves

plosives "B" "P" = breaks soft mood like gunfire

irony:"hands which did not tremble then though seem to now"=calm in face of war but affect   him now

"stained"=lasting impact of war        "*****"=readers pain for short amount of time(forget)

"tears" and "beers" rhym quickens pace/short duration of pain

10 of 12

kamikaze by beatrice garland

form: 3rd person"her"=absence of fathers voice distances us/shows hes been cutt of from everyone>has no voice


structure: account of pilots flight as daughter imagines it/end of sentence=plane landing

sibilance: "fishes flashing silver"=smooth movemont of fish in water/beautiful imagery which contrast with ugly death

repetition:"safe"=pilot doesnt want to leave his children

irony:"he no longer exist"=he survived yet treated as if hes dead

11 of 12

poppies by jane weir

form: dramatic monologue addressing her son as"you"=emphasis on pain caused to mother

structure:free verse/irregular rhym+stanza length/enjambment/ceasura=chaos at home(worry)

.       THEME:REALITY OF WAR/MEMORY/EXPERIENCE             >"all...felt"=mother is breaking


"spasm...red"=injury   "blockade"=war/harm        "dove"=symbolising purity/death

aliiteration:"bias binding""blazer"=war/harshness/bullets foredhadow harm

contrast:"white hair" "black...hair"=innocence/death > sending young to their death

similie:"like a treasure chest"=childish nature of soldier/how war was portrayed

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