Ideas - We can imagine an old slave ship transporting slaves from Africa to Europe or America: “the dark deck is slavery” (alliteration for emphasis). The slaves keep their spirits high by singing and by playing the limbo game.
Language - METAPHORS "Limbo" (title) two meanings game made by slaves, place between heaven and hell symbolic of slaves position. "burning ground" hot gound of USA, hell of slavery, poet's "burning" anger.
REPITION "silence" slaves silenced by slavery."dark"conditions ,evil atmosphere,hell
ALITERATION - "stick hit sound" sound of whip, monosylabic = violence, hard sound.
PERSONIFICATION - "water is hiding" water hiding from bad, nature ashamed of white
Structure - Like song shows hope trapped not crushed strong spirt of slaves.
Feelings - SUFFERING - "silence" "like me" slaves silenced by slavery, lost identity
PAIN - "knees spread wide" slaves and culture *****
ANGER - "dumb gods" anger at god not speaking up for them (dumb=silent)
HAPPINESS - "drummers are praising me" "up up up" coming out of hell, hope, heaven calling
CONTRAST - feelings of death and darkness turn into hope "down" turns to "up"