Plato- The Analogy of the cave
Who? Ancient greek philosopher. Argued that this world like a cave that traps peoles souls. True reality is to be found in the ROF, DUALIST- "There is only one good, knowledge& one evil, ignorance"
What? Differences between the appearnaces of the world& the reality
- Prisoners- Ordinary people= Empirical knowledge (senses) is flawed, use priori knowledge in order to know truth
- Outside world-True Reality=DUALIST
- Cave- World of appearances=DUALIST
- Shdow plays- Illusions
- Escaped Prisoner- Philospher
- Sun- Form of good= Ultimate goal to gain knowledge
Strengths- Helps us understand why there are are imperfections, Sences may be unreliable" View maybe clouded by our senses"
Weaknesses-Ambiguous,Fails to illustrate the attractivness of the visable world; Empiricst challenge- Dawkins: No evidence to support the "trancendent"- World beyond physical. Unclear link between WOF WOA
Plato- The Forms
What? True knowledge must exist in non- physical realm that eternal- WOF= Behind every object& every concept, there is an unseen reality-FORM- "What is essential is invisable to eye"- Saint- Euxupery"
FORM- Perfect ideas= Timless, unchanging, immaterial. Only known through intelligence- WOF PARTICULARS- Things are contingent, imperfect , imitations of forms
FORM OF GOOD: Ultimate form, Through an understanding of the FOG= Understand the value of all things. True knowledge for Plato, is a knowledge of true goodness
Plato- Use of reason, recall what our soul remembers from WOF.Most important task- Seek knowlege, searching beyond the appearances of the world
Strengths- Understand imperfections, Explanation of problem of evil, Encourages to question& not accept things at face valve- Gives purpose to subjects that require thinking
Weaknesses- Proof of past experiance& WOF? Popper "Why can't reality change?", St Augestine "Evil things don't really exists at all"- Absence of goodness