Plate Tectonics Case Studies

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  • Created by: Andyco
  • Created on: 15-05-15 15:28

Earthquake - Christchurch, New Zealand

  • Feb 22nd 2011, 12:51pm // Destrucive plate margin (Australian Plate subducts underneath Pacific Plate) // Epicenter 6km north of Christchurch // Magnitude 6.3 // 10 seconds.

Imacts:

  • Water and sewage lines damaged, causing them to leak leading to contamination of water.
  • 40bn dollars worth of damage.
  • 181 killed & 2000 injured.
  • Damage to local schools, impacting on the education of 45,000 students.
  • 75% decrease in tourism for the following months.

Responses/Management

  • Colour coded damage system on buildings.
  • Geonet funded -> monitoring/ warning systems.
  • Regular Earthquake drills
  • St Johns ambulance helped with medical response
  • 7mil dollars of international aid // 900 million insurance pay outs.
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Earthquake - Japan Tsunami

  • 11th March 2011 // Pacific plate subducts underneath Eurasian plate // 9.0 earthquake // 7.1 aftershocks // 130km off coast -> tsunami.

Impacts:

  • 4million homes without power/ water
  • Transport: bullet train stopped, Hadena airport closed ,82 roads and 32 bridges destroyed
  • Fukushima meltdown
  • Almost 16k deaths, 6k injured, 2.5k missing
  • 5k homes destroyed, 50k damaged.

Responses and Management:

  • Tsunami warning within 3mins -> TV broadcast
  • 91 countries -> aid & charities (e.g. british red cross)
  • Japan: " Best prepared for disasters"
  • 10m sea wall -> overflowed
  • Meterological agencies and safe buildings.
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Earthquake - Haiti

  • Poorest country in the Americas (669GDP) // 12th Jan 2010 // 7.0 magnitude // epicenter = 25km from Port Au prince (Capital city)

Impacts:

  • 28k buildings destroyed, including 4000 schools and the presidential palace.
  • 1/5 people lost their jobs
  • 159k dead including 25% of civil servants.
  • 3million people affected 

Responses and Management:

  • Countried sent aid (Dominican rep. first) / american red cross donated 7mil in 24hrs
  • 8 mobile hospitals with 36 doctors
  • 39 trucks full of food aid
  • Israeli defence helped: children, elderly and pregnant women
  • 400 orphans adopted by Americans
  • NO DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN PLACE.
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Earthquake - Market Rasen, UK

  • 27th Feb 2008, 12:56am // 5.2 on richter // 2.2 aftershocks // 4km North of Market Rasen // 18.6km depth focus // NO PLATE MARGIN.

Impacts:

  • Homes shaken causing people to phone emergency services.
  • Chimneys and rooves damaged.
  • 1 Man suffered a broken pelvis from falling debris, no deaths.
  • Minor damage to homes.
  • Secondary damage to roads from falling debris
  • Total cost = 30million GBP

NO DISASTER MANAGEMENT.

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Earthquake - Gujarat, India

  • 26th Jan 2001 // 7.9 magnitude // 17 mile deep focus // hundreds of aftershocks up to 5 on richter scale // Indian plate subducts under Eurasain plate (destructive) // Liquefaction

Impacts:

  • 800,000 buildings damaged, 345,000 homes destroyed including 4 hospitals
  • Communications and power lines destroyed.
  • 30k dead 160k injured
  • 1million homeless
  • 20k cattle killed

Responses and Management (NO DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN PLACE)

  • Rescue teams helped surviors and disinfected collapsed buildings to stop spread of disease
  • Refugee camps with: water/ food/ medical services and water purification tablets
  • India = 500 troops// 40 aircraft// 3 ships ( 2 of which were used as hospitals)
  • Britain sent a team of 69 rescuers.
  • Locals looted properties
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Earthquake - Indian Ocean Tsunami

  • 26th Dec 2004 // Indoaustralian plate under Eurasian // 9.0 magnitude // 25m tsunami // Thailand, Indonesia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Malaysia etc.

Impacts: 

  • Damage to infrastructure, including a derailed train which killed 1000 people and hospitals
  • Insurance costs of 5bn 
  • 30,000 dead, 10,000 injured 
  • 1.7 million homeless

Responses:

  • Burial/ Buring of corpses
  • 5bn foreign aid, millions provided with food aid
  • UK charities raised 330million
  • Continued rebuilidng -> ongoing
  • Indian ocean tsunami warning system / evacutation routes
  • Small scale sustainable development projects to help rebuild communities.
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Earthquake - Northridge, USA

  • 17th Jan 1994, 4:30 am // San Andreas fault // 6.7 magnitude // on MLK day // 600 aftershocks up to 5.8 on richter // 18.4km depth focus 

Impacts

  • 12.5k buildings damaged and 11 major roads and hospitals totalling 30billion USD damage
  • 700,000 applications for state financial help
  • 57 killed, 1.5k injured, 20k homeless
  • 9k - no power 20k - no gas 50k - no water
  • 11k landslides triggered

Responses 

  • 17.5bn aid package from US gov
  • federal housing housed 130k people
  • redcross dispached 15k aid workers to 47 shelters providing food for 1.7million
  • Charities Helped immigrants
  • Management: Earthquake proof construction // recovery and reconstrucion plan // earthquake emergency operations plan // 1990 seismic hazard mapping act.
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Earthquake - L'Aquila, Italy

  • April 16th 2009, 3:32 am // 6.3 magnitude // Eurasian subducts under African // 5 mile focus

Impacts:

  • Buildings collapsed due to quake and fires -> 15bn damage (incuding uni)
  • Landlside due to broken water pipe
  • 70k homeless // thousands migrated away to find work 
  • 300 dead 1500 injured

Responses and Management:

  • Camps set up for homeless
  • Ambulances/ fire teams/ army/ cranes/ diggers/ intenational aid teams w/ dogs -> resuce efforts
  • Gov money given to people to pay rent // bills frozen, promised rebuilding of new town
  • 12k support workers
  • By the end of 2009 12k people had been housed
  • Management: Most buildings had no earthquake proofing // civil protection department // seismologists -> people think not good job 
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Earthquake - Kashmir, Pakistan

  • 8th Oct 2005, 8:50am // 7.6 magnitude // indian under eurasian // 978 aftershocks up to 4 mag.

Impacts:

  • Towns destoryed, water and power cut off -> 5bn damages
  • 80k dead 50k injured 3mil homeless (made worse by disease and cold winter)
  • Landslide blocked rivers, and buried people 

Responses and Management:

  • Help took weeks to reach some places, took 1 month for tents and blankets to be given out
  • 40k people relocated to a new town 
  • Training for earthquake proof reconstruction
  • Gov money given to the homless to rebuild their own homes
  • New health centres set up in the area
  • International aid -> helicopters
  • Gov federal Relief commison
  • NO DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN PLACE.
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Volcanic Eruption - Mt Etna, Sicily

  • Located near Sicilys 2nd largest city: Catania // 14th Dec 1991 - 1993 // Eurasian plate subducts under African // 250mil m^3 of lava over the 473 days.

Impacts:

  • Millions of Lira spent on insurance claims and responses / management
  • Loss of income from tourism over the two years.
  • Destroyed fresh water spring (8000 reliant) and farmland
  • No deaths!

Responses and Management:

  • 400m Long 20m high lava barrier -> helped for 3 months then overflowed.
  • Blasted holes in lava tube and blocked with concrete blocks.
  • Diversion paths created to steer lava away from heavily populated areas.
  • Institute of volcanology in sicily improved / invested in -> GPS, seismometers etc..
  • Police/fire/army/volcanologists/charities/government -> cooperation.
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Volcanic Eruption - Mt Nyiragongo, Congo

  • 17th Jan 2002 // Accompanied by earthquake magnitude 5 // Near town of goma

Impacts:

  • 15million aid given to 350k people
  • 1/3 of Goma destroyed including commerical town centre & 3 health centres
  • Cholera and Dysentry spread due to lack of sanitation / water
  • 147 dead (50 from gas station explosion (looters))
  • 1000's injured by gases / burns
  • Lava made aid efforts difficult 

Responses and Management:

  • Many people evacuated 
  • 2 days later UN sent aid (emergency rations)
  • Camps set up to provide food, water and healthcare
  • 15million dollars of aid in total
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Volcanic Eruption - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

  • 19th April 2010 // Mid Atlantic ridge (North American plate <---  ---> Eurasian plate) // 11,000m ash plume // melting glacier 

Impacts:

  • 200mil income lost to airlines per day -> 4% fall in stocks 
  • Kenya lost 3.5million on exports // europe lost 2.6billion gdp
  • Euro star 50k extra passangers per day (7million income)
  • 10million passangers stranded abroad
  • Local water supplies contaminated and roads destroyed by flooding
  • 500 people evacuated

Responses and Management:

  • All responses were domestic 
  • Cancelled flights reduced number of casualties
  • Clean up cost 7 million
  • Management: GPS, Satellites, seismometers -> highly advanced
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Volcanic Eruption - Mt Pinatubo, Philippines

June 12th - 15th 1991 // Philippene Plate under Eurasian // Reactivated dormant volcano by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake in 1990.

Impacts:

  • Typhoon Yunya made it worse (lahars) -> Collapsed buildings/bridges & Closed Manila airport
  • 1.2 million homeless -> shanty towns // 58,000 evacuees // 847 dead
  • 1991 harvest lost -> 650,000 jobs lost
  • 0.5 degrees global cooling -> 2 years 

Responses and Management:

  • Gov set up camps for evacuees
  • Longterm aid donationc and disease control measures (red cross)
  • Due to predictions water an medical supplies were storred in preperation.
  • Management: USGS helped to predict eruption // permenent monitoring of the volcano since signs showed it reactivating // alert systems in place (ppl evacuated before eruption.
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Volcanic Eruption - Mt St. Helens, USA

  • 18th May 1980 // triggered by 5.1 earthquake // Juan de fuca under North American plate // 30km^2 total destruction // 600km^2 effected // 540 million tonnes of ash emitted 

Impacts:

  • 1.1bn dollars damage
  • 27 bridges, 24km of railway, 300km road and 200 homes destroyed
  • 31 ships stranded // 1000 flights cancelled // timber industry fell 240km^2 forest destroyed
  • 57 people killed - most by inhaling ash

Responses and Management:

  • Emergancy shelters for homeless and gas masks distribued 
  • 900,000 tonnes of ash removed, shipping dam created to clear shipping channels 
  • Domestic water supplies monitored for contamination
  • 18.4 million trees replanted (45000 acres of forest)
  • Management: 2000 evacuted previous to eruption as it could not be accurately predicted // USGS issued warnings ( monitoring systems )
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Volcanic Eruption - Soufrière Hills, Montserrat

  • June 25th - 21st Sep 1997 // Caribbean plate under North American // 4.5mil m^3 in 20 mins.

Impacts:

  • Total costs 1 billion
  • 2 villages and 2/3 of island destroyed including: gov offices, schools and the airport.
  • Tourism fell initially, however in recent years it is rising due to the volcanic eruption
  • 19 dead and 7 seriously injured
  • 8k/12k people left, 4k -> UK

Responses and Management:

  • Many people evacuated to the north to shelters
  • Uk donated 17million emergancy aid and 41 million long term aid 
  • Montserrat volcano observatory set up alongside creation of a risk map
  • Destruction of key infrastucture e.g. airport/ port hampered responses. 
  • Management: Studied in 1980's but nobody paid attention // no disaster plan in place
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