Plate tectonic case studies

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  • Created by: gemma-t96
  • Created on: 02-11-14 15:10

Volcano cast studies

ICELAND started 20th March, erupted 19th April
Eyjafjallajökull, NA & Eurasian plate, divergent plate boundary.
Fissure eruption, 11,000m high ash cloud. 700 evacuated, flooding from 150m thick ice cap. 20 farms destroyed, 
S: 17,000 flights cancelled dailymain route 1 road partly damaged, airplane issues & weather disturbances ($200 mill a day worldwide)
Prepared for the eruption, equipment used for future eruptions, emergency services prepared

MOUNT PINATUBO 15th March 1991 started 3rd May first eruption of lava 7th June ash column
NE Asia, Eurasian plate sub ducted beneath Philippian plate. 58,000 evacuated, Pyroclastic flow 16km in 3 hours
847 People Killed. 42,000 homes lost
 650,000 workers lost jobs. 1.2million homeless. Contaminated water, no electricity, roads destroyed 500 dead from disease recovery cost $10.6 b
Fast flowing volcanic mudflows (lahars) cause severe river bank erosion, undercut bridges etc. Heavy rainfall from Typhoon Yunga causes buildings to collapse.
Evacuation camps set up for refugees & medical facilities put in place.
Hazard maps & lahar detection in places,  US Geological Service helped predict the disaster

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Earthquake Case Studies

Christchurch NZ, 22nd Feb 2011 12.51
Conservative, Pacific slid past Australian. 6.3, after larger EQ in 2010 but impacts more severe
 P: 181 dead, liquefaction. 8% without electricity
S: loss of income and jobs, loss of economy due to repairs
Responses: S: Vulnerable stayed at safe camps, zonal areas to classify damage. International aid totaled $6-7m 
L: $898m in building claims, temp houing. Water & sewage restored by August 50% paths fixed

Haiti 12th Jan 2010 4,53
 Conservative NA past Caribbean 7.0
P: 316,000 dead, 1m homeless, 3m affected over 300,000 buildings destroyed
S: 1 in 5 lost their jobs, cholera spread. Hard to recieve aid as the airport was damaged, bad health and sanitation
 Responses: S: $100m US aid, $330m by EU, aid camps. Lack of immediate aid due to poor management
L: 1m without homes a year on, 70% without jobs. Cash/ food for work. Water/ sanitation supplied to 1.7m. NGO provided clean water
Development: 80% below poverty line, 0.25 doctors per 1000. 46% have clean water.  

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Earthquake Case Studies

Christchurch NZ, 22nd Feb 2011 12.51
Conservative, Pacific slid past Australian. 6.3, after larger EQ in 2010 but impacts more severe
 P: 181 dead, liquefaction. 8% without electricity
S: loss of income and jobs, loss of economy due to repairs
Responses: S: Vulnerable stayed at safe camps, zonal areas to classify damage. International aid totaled $6-7m 
L: $898m in building claims, temp houing. Water & sewage restored by August 50% paths fixed

Haiti 12th Jan 2010 4,53
 Conservative NA past Caribbean 7.0
P: 316,000 dead, 1m homeless, 3m affected over 300,000 buildings destroyed
S: 1 in 5 lost their jobs, cholera spread. Hard to recieve aid as the airport was damaged, bad health and sanitation
 Responses: S: $100m US aid, $330m by EU, aid camps. Lack of immediate aid due to poor management
L: 1m without homes a year on, 70% without jobs. Cash/ food for work. Water/ sanitation supplied to 1.7m. NGO provided clean water
Development: 80% below poverty line, 0.25 doctors per 1000. 46% have clean water.  

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Tsunami C/S

Sendai 11th March 2011, 2.46pm 9.0 15,400 killed Subduction zone, Pacific under Euarasian 2M homeless, dam burst, power disrupted, no signal. 500,000 in shelters, damage to underground pipes led to fires. Cholera and Typhoid. 12th March Japan lost over £90b in shares. Total rebuild cost: £186b, Red cross had 230 teams 2nd April, USA joined to search for missing people Indian Ocean EQ 7.58am Dec 26th 2004
Subduction of Indo-Aus under Eur = 20m uplift of sea floor on fault line motion of wave hit within 30 mins of EQ P: death toll: 250,00- Sumatra 130,000 killed 30,000 missing. 80,000 homes destroyed
S: Cholera, lack of clean water killed 150,000. Income lost, tourism declined, psychological Respones: mass graves to prevent spread of disease, $7b NGO aid, 5m temp relocated
Relocated refugees to new homes, TWS installed in Ocean and cost $20m

Indonesian Tsunami: December 26th 2004. 9.1 magniture, 3rd largest since 1900, this triggered the largest TS for loss of life since reliable records began. Aus Plate subducted under the Burma Plate (larger part of the Eurasian Plate) 15-20m slip occurred along a 1600km faultline in 2 phases over 4 minutes. Epicentre was 160km offshore in the Indian Ocean. The wave travelled at 500mph. TS caused approx 228,800 deaths.
  The damage and loss of life was most severe in Sumatra near the epicentre. The coastal towns were hit by the biggest waves and for the most part were totally destroyed. Maldives, were affected, low lying islands deemed as inhabitable. Kandolhudloo swamped & had to be evacuated.

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