Plant Cells

Leaf Palisade Cell

Function: Photosynthesis


  • Long and thin to provide large SA for sunlight absorption
  • Many chloroplasts which arrange themselves in best position to absorb sunlight
  • A large vacuole which pushes the chloroplasts to the edge of the cell

Chloroplasts are organelles


  • Double plasma membrane surrounds organelle
  • Grana - stacks of discs called thylakoids. These contain chlorophyll which carry out first stage of photosynthesis
  • Stroma - fluid-filled matrix containing enzymes for the second stage of photosynthesis
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Cell Wall


  • Provide mechanical strength and to prevent osmotic lysis
  • Allow water to pass through via apoplastic pathway


  • Made up of microfibrils formed from the grouping of cellulose
  • The middle lamella is a thin boundary between adjacent cell walls and holds adjacent cells together
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Specialised Cells


Cell dies in order to be hollow so can carry out function of being main vessel of water transport

Is a long tube with thick cell walls which go from the bottom to the top of the plant

Root Hair Cell

Exchange surface which absorbs water and mineral ions

Water absorbed via osmosis and mineral ions via active transport

Active transport requires a lot of ATP for carrier proteins so cell contains many mitochondria

Long hair increases surface area for absorption

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