P.I.E.S

The life stages

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Infancy (0-3 years)-Physical development

The newborn baby has to take easily digestible food such as mother's milk in order to grow. A newborn baby does not have a fully developed brain but can usually hear sounds, tell differences in the way things taste and idebtify the smell of their own mother or carer. Infants are born with various reflexes.

Infants have the physical ability to recognise and interact with people. Babies prefer the sound of human voices to other sounds, and soon learn to recognise their mother's voice.

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Infancy-Intellectual development.

During the first 18 months infants have to learn to coordinate their senses and their muscle behaviour. To begin with, a baby will rely on inbuilt patterns for behaviour such as sucking, crawling and watching. A baby will adapt this behaviour in order to explore a wider range of objects. Babies explore by sucking toys, fingers, clothing and so on. In this way, they are slowly able to develop an understanding of objects.

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Infancy-Social development

Infants soon learn to recognise their mother's voice and smell, and can probaly recognise their mother's face by two months of age. Infants try to attract attention. Many infants will smile and make noises to attract adults. Infants will often respond to the speech and smiles of their carers, and both onfants and carers seems to have an inbuilt desire to make an emotional bond that ties them together.

At about 12 months of age, infants often develop a fear of strangers and will protest if they are seperated from their parents. After the first year of life, infants feel safe with familiar family members if they have formed the necesary social bonds.

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Infancy-Emotional development.

Infants aged 5-6 months seem to recognise emotions in their carers. As infnats grow , they gradually learn that they can influence their carers. At about 2 years old, infants may develop the idea that they are persons with a fixed gender.

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Childhood (3-10 years) - physical development

Children grow steadily at this time but less rapidly than during infancy. By the age of 6, a childs head will be almost adult size-even though the body still has a lot of growing to do.At 2 year old children may be able to run and to climb stairs one step at a time.

Puberty often starts for girls between the ages of 11 and 13, although some girls may begin earlier.

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Childhood-Intellectual development

By the age of 2, children generally start to talk. By the age of 6, children can often use language as well as some adults. Language develops very rapidly between between 2 and 6 years of age.

Between the age of 2 and 7 years, most children learn to count and to explain how much things weigh. Young children do not always fully understand the logic involved in counting and weighing things.

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Childhood-Social development

Young children still depend very much on their carers to look after them. They need secure emotional ties with their family. As children develop, they become more and more independant, but the family provides safety and a setting in which to learn social roles.

Young children use imagination to play-act roles.

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Childhood-Emotional development

Children develop from being aware of themselves at 2 years of age to being able to describe their feelings by 12 years. Children need to feel that they are valued by their freinds and family.

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Adolescence (11- 18 years) physical development.

Girls generally start puberty before 13, but for boys this comes between 13 and 15. Puberty is a development stage which prepares the body for sexual reproduction.

Girls sexual development during puberty includes the enlargement of breasts, the development of pubic hair, increased fat layers under the skin, and the start of menstrual periods. Boys will experience the enlargement of their testes and penis, the development of pubic and facial hair, and increased muscle strength. Boys voices also break and become deeper.

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Adolescence- Intellectual development

An adolescence may eb able to imagine and think about things they ahve never seen or done. By adolescence, people can often imagine their future and how to acheive things. Children are unlikely to plan and think ahead in the same way.

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Adolescence- Social development.

Adolescents become increasingly independant of their family, and friendship groups can become more important than family for the development of social skills.

Between 13 and 18 years of age, most adolescents will begin to explore relationships with possible sexual partners. Towards late adolescence people will begin to think about different decisions they will need to take in later life.

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Adolescence - Emotional development.

Adolescence can involve major emotional stresses as people go through rapid social and physical change. Some adolescents feela loss of self-esteem as they transfer from school to work. Becoming independant from parents can involve conflict and stress. The search for love and affection from a sexual partner may not be stress-free.

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Adulthood (18 onwards) physical development.

Young adults are often at the peak of physical performance between 18 and 28 years of age.Women are most able to conceive children in their late teens and early 20s. The risk of miscarriages and complications rises with age. Usually between 45 and 55 years of age women stop being able to have children because of the menopause.

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Adulthood-intellectual development.

Intellectual skills and abilities may increase during adulthood if they are excercised. Older adults may have slightly slower reaction times, but increased knowledge may compensate for this in many work situations.

Older adults may be more skilled than adolescents and young adults when it comes to making complex decisions. Some adults may develop increased wisdom as they become older.

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Adulthood- Social development.

Early adulthood is often a time when people continue to develop their network of personal friends. Most young adults establish sexual relationships and partnerships. Marriage and parenthood are important social life events that are often associated with early adulthood.

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Adulthood-Emotional development.

An individuals sense of self and self esteem will continue to develop throughout adulthood. During early adulthood, many adults may struggle to develop the confidence to share life with a partner. Some individuals may prefer to live alone or may feel that partnership relationships are too demanding.

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Old age(65 onwards)-Physical development.

The period of life after 65 usually involves some reduction in the efficiency of the body.

  • The heart breathing and circulation becomes weaker
  • Muscles may become weaker and skin becomes less elastic.
  • Many people developments and disability rise with age.
  • Reaction times and speed of thinking slows down.
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Old age - Intellectual development

Some people seem to become less able to solve problems and cop with difficult challenges with later life. To some extent, mental abilities are influenced by physical health. The more active you are, the more alert you are.

Other people who enjoy good health, and who excercise their minds often keep their mental abilities and continue to develop their store of knowledge.

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Old age- Social development.

Older people lead varied and different lives. Many retired people have a greater opportunity for meeting and making new friends than they did while they were working. A network of fmaily and friends can provide vital practical and emotional support. Health problems and impairments can sometimes cause social isolation.

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Old age- Social development.

Older people lead varied and different lives. Many retired people have a greater opportunity for meeting and making new friends than they did while they were working. A network of fmaily and friends can provide vital practical and emotional support. Health problems and impairments can sometimes cause social isolation.

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Old age- Emotional development.

People continue to develop their senses of self as life progresses. Some theorists suggest that the main challenge of old age is to keep a strong sense of self-esteem, despite the problems that can arise. Some older people may be at risk of losing their self-confidence and self-esteem because of the way others treat them.

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Adulthood (18 onwards) physical development.

Young adults are often at the peak of physical performance between 18 and 28 years of age.Women are most able to conceive children in their late teens and early 20s. The risk of miscarriages and complications rises with age. Usually between 45 and 55 years of age women stop being able to have children because of the menopause.

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Comments

rhfghdf

Full of great information and easy to understand too.

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