physiological psychology revision

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what are the 2 factors in the 2 factor theory of emotion?

2 factors we need to feel emotion -

one is arousaland the other is attribution (cognitive)

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schachter and singer

what was the aim of the experiment?

to describe an experiment that provides support for schachter's theory of the interaction between physiology, cognition, and behaviour in emotional experience

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schachter and singer

who were the p's in the study?

184 male college students, 90% of whom volunteered to get extra points in their exams

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schachter and singer

describe the 4 experimental conditions of the injection(1st IV)...

informed- were told the real side effects of the injection

misinformed- were told false side effects of injection(e.g. itching, numbness etc)

ignorant- told there would be no side effects of injection

controlled- injected with a placebo really, and told there was no side effects at all

all 4 groups were told they were injected with a suproxin injection when they weren't

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schachter and singer

what is a placebo?

a saline solution which has no direct effect on arousal of the sympathetic nervous system

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schachter and singer

what are the effects of being injected by epinephrine?

general physiological arousal of the sympathetic nervous system causing

accelerated heartbeat/breathing, palpitations

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schachter and singer

describe how was the 2nd IV manipulated(anger and euphoria conditions)...

euphoric stooge- subjects saw a confederate behaving happily- throwing paper and playing with a hula hoop

angry stooge - subjects saw a confederate complain and behave in an outraged way, ripping up questionnaires

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schachter and singer

describe the 2 ways in which the researchers measured the p's emotion...

observation - observed through a one way mirror for how similar it was to the stooge's behaviour

self-report measures - this was used to assess how good or angry they felt on a scale of 1-5

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schachter and singer

in the euphoria conditions which groups showed the greatest happiness?

the ignorant and misinformed groups as they didn't have a relevant explanation of their arousal.

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schachter and singer

explain why the experiment could be seen as unethical...

as participants were decieved over purpose of study and contents of injection

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schachter and singer

outline 2 main controls of the experiment...

self-report scales

all injected with either placebo or epinephrine

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dement and kleitman

what is meant by REM sleep?

rapid eye movent during sleeping

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dement and kleitman

outline the 3 hypothesis in this study...

there will be a significant association between REM sleep & dreaming

there will be a significant positive correlation between the estimate of duration of dreams and the length of eye movement

there will be a significant association between the pattern of the eye movent & context of dream

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dement and kleitman

describe the sample used in this study...

7 adult males and 2 adult females

5 were studied intensively, studied to confirm results

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dement and kleitman

explain one criticism of this sample...

not representative to the whole of the human race as it was so small

explain one strength of this sample...

because its a small group you can study them more in depth and focus

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dement & klietman

why do u think the p's were asked to abstain from alcohol or caffeine on the day of the experiment?

so their sleep wouldn't be effected

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dement and kleitman

what was an EEG used for?

was used to amplify and record the signals

outline 1strength

reliable accurate data

outline 1 weakness

reductionist approach- appliesa simple approach to a complex problem (ignores nurture)

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dement & kleitman

what did the p's have to do every time they were woken up?

immediately report into a recording device wether they had been dreaming and the content of the dream before any contact with experimenter to avoid bias

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dement and kleitman

sum up dement and kleitman's findings in relation to thier hypotheses...

all participants showed periods of REM every night during their sleep

all 3 hypotheses were proved correct

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dement and kleitman

what is meant by ecological validity (EV)?

real to life

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dement and kleitman

suggest 4 ways in which the experiement may have lacked EV?

it was in a lab

electrodes were stuck to their heads

they wouldn't normally be woken up by a door bell so much

knew they were in an experiment

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what is the function of the corpus callosum?

interconnect and allow communication between the two cerebral hemispheres

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what are the functions of each hemisphere?

left- controls right side of the body, language,speech, writing, analysis, calculations

right- controls left side of the body, drawing , facial recognition, holistic thoughts, spatial awareness

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outline the details of the sample...

11patients who underwent hemispheric deconnection to reduce crippling epilepsy

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explain why this was a quasi experiment...

as p's had naturally undergone hemispheric deconnection

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how was information presented to one visual feild?

patients fixed their eyes on a centre spot

words or pictures projected either side of this point for 1/10th of a sec

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