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P4

STATIC ENERGY IS GENERATED BY FRICTION OR RUBBING OFF TWO SURFACES

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ELECTRONS

ELECTRONS TRANSFER FROM SURFACE TO SURFACE TO ANOTHER

( ELECTRONS ARE NEGATIVE )

THIS MAKES A POSTIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGE SURFACES 

SIMULAR CHARGES REPEL WHILE THE OPPOSITE ATTRACT.

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PROBLEMS AND DANGERS

PROBLEMS AND DANGERS

-STATIC ENERGY CAN BUILD UP IN FEUL PIPES CAUSING FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS

-USE A ROD (BROWN)

-STATIC ON CLOTHING TENDS TO CLING. - RESULT TO USE FABRIC SOFTENER

STATIC CAUSES DUST ON TV - ANTI-STATIC SPRAYS AND CLOTHS

LIGHTNING IS A GIANT STATIC DISTRACTION AND POWER OF ENERGY EXITING FROM A CLOUD  - LIGHTNING ROD CONDUCTOR

YOU CAN GET SHOCKS FROM FRICTION ON CARPETS - INSOLUATING MASS

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USES OF STATIC

--DEFRIBULATOR

RESTORES HEART BEAT

PADDLES GET CHARGED 

FORM GOOD CONTACT WITH THE SKIN

STATIC DISTCHARCH THROUGH CHEST TO HEART

INSOLUATED HANDLES (PADDLES) SO OPERATOR DOESNT GET A SHOCK

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DUSTFRIBULATORS

--DUSTFRIBULATORS

- IN CHIMNEYS 

METAL PLATES IN CHIMNEYS GETS CHARGED

DUST/ SMOKE ATTACT TO PLATES

DUMPS TOGETHER SO CAN EASILY BE REMOVED

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SPRAYPAINTING

--SPRAY PAINTING

-SPRAY PAINTING ON A CAR

SPRAY GETS CHARGED AT THE NOZZLE

PAINT PARTICLES REPEL MAKING A FINE SPRAY

POSITIVLEY CHARGED

PARTICLES ARE TRAPPED TO THE CAR GIVEN A EVEN COAT-LESS WASTE

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ELECTRON SAFTEY

THE PLUG.

LIVE- BROWN - CARRY HIGH VOLTAGE

NUTRAL-BLUE- COMPLETES THE CIRCUIT 

EARTH-GREEN/YELLOW-SAFETY WIRE TO PREVENT THE APPLIANCE COMING ALIVE.

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PLUG CONTINUED...

FUSE: THE THIN WIRE THAT MELTS BREAKING THE CIRCUIT TO PROTECT THE APPLIANCE FOR A OVERLOAD OF CURRENT

EARTHWIRE: CARRIES ELECTRICTY WIRE TO EARTH (STOP GETTING SHOCKS)

DOUBLE INSOLUATION: IF THE APPLIANCE HAS PLASTIC COATING IT CANT BECOME ALLIVE SO NO EARTH WIRE IS NEEDED.

RESISTERS: AS VOLTAGE INCREASES CURRENT A RESISITER CAN LIMIT HOW MUCH CURRENT IS FLOWING

RESISTANCE = VOLTAGE /CURRENT

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FREQUENCY

FREQUENCY IS THE NUMBER OF COMPRESSIONS EACH SECOND .

-ULTRASOIUND : IS ABOVE THE RANGE OF HUMAN HEARING

THE INTENSITY OF WAVE ON OSICILIOSCOPE

USES: - PREGANT -SMASHING KIDNEY STONES
   - CANCER DECECTING BLOOD FLOW 

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RADIATION

RADIATION COMES FROM THE ATOMS NUCLEUS (UNSTABLE)

RADIATION IS MEASURED IN RADIOACTIVE DECAYS PER SECOND.

RADIATION DECREASES OVERTIME

BACKGROUND RADIATION IS NATUALLY PRESENT IN THE AIR

RADIOACTIVE CARBON DATING CAN BE USED TO AGE ROCKS

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NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS

NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS

1) URANIUM IS HIT BY SPEED NUTRONS
2) ATOM SPLITS RELEASING ENERGY AND MORE NUTRONS 
3) NUTRONS SPLITS MORE URANIUM ATOMS STARTING A CHAIN REACTION
4) ENERGY RELEASED HEATS WATER TO STRAM
5)STAM TURNS A TURBINE
6)TURBINE TURNS A GENERATOR
7)ELECTRICTY IS PRODUCED

ADV: DIS./ADV.
LOTS OF ENERGY CHAIN REACTION ( OUT
POWERFULL!  OF CONTROL -NUCLEAR REACTION) 

RADIOACTIVE WASTE IRONIZING (DAMAMGING PARTICLES )
TERROIST ATTACKS 

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ACIDS AND BASES

acid alkali/Base

l_______________________l___________________________l
l  nutrual      l
 
REMEMBER!!

acid!

hydrochloric                                             base: BASE DESOLVES IN
sulphuric metal oxide WATER! 
nitric e.g MgO

NaOH
(sodium Hydroxide)  


 

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NUTRALISATION

ACID + ALKALI - SALT +WATER
ACID + BASE - SALT +WATER
ACID+CARBONATE - SALT +WATER +CO2

e.g

sulphuric acid + sodium hydroxide ----> sodium sulphate +water
nitric acid + copper oxide ----> copper nitrate + water
hydrochloric acid + magnesium carbonate ----> magnesium chloride+CO2

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reaction of amounts - section 2`

FORMULA MASS!

COMPOUND ELEMENT ATOM FORMULA MASS            

H20 H   +  O 2H - 10 16+1+1=18

________________________________________________________________

CO2 C  +   O 1C - 20 12+16+16=44

________________________________________________________________

Mg(NO3)2 Mg+N+O 1mg+2N+6O 24+14+14+ (6X16)=148

________________________________________________________________

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YEILD

YEILD: YOU WONT BE GIVEN THE FORMULA SO LEARN IT!!

AMOUNT OF PRODUCT COMPARED TO THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT.

YEILD = AMOUNT OF PRODUCT / MASS PREDICITED AMOUNT  X 100% 

e.g simon makes 0.2 grams of a drug he can make 1.0g calculate the yeild

0.2 / 1  x  100%  = 20%

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FERTILISERS

FERTILISERS ARE MADE BY NEUTRILATION REACTIONS (SALTS) 

THEY PROVIDE PLANTS WITH MINERALS ( NITROGEN, PHOSPHOURUS, POTTASSIUM)

THEY ARE ABSORBED THROUGH PLANT ROOTS

THEY INCREASE CROP YEILD

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HARBOR PROCESS

NITROGEN ( natrual gas ) + Hydrogen <-------> Amonania ( fertilisers and cosmetics)

- reversable 

- maximise - rate + yeild!


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FACTOR EFFECT YEILD COST ACTUAL

inc. pressure   inc expensive 200° into atmostphere

_______________________________________________________________

inc temp inc decrease expensive 450° into
atmostphere

_______________________________________________________________

add catalyst inc --------- cheap iron catalyst 

_______________________________________________________________

inc= increase                           they recyle unused nitrogen & hydrogen
other costs include : labour, machinery, energy

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DETERGANTS

INGREDIANTS  FUNCTION WASHING UP LIQUID WASH POWDER

active
dertergant -  cleans yes yes

water softens
softener hard water yes yes

water thins detergant yes  no

bleach moves stains no yes

brightner makes white no yes

rinse removes detertant yes no 

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FORM (alloptropes) structure      properties uses         

Diamond tetrahegional           hard  drill&rings
iron conductor  etc.
________________________________________________________________

gameater hexagonal layers soft  pencil lead
conductors  electrodes

_________________________________________________________________

Brickminster football   desolves in  stregnthen
fullerine shape petrol carbon fibre  

_________________________________________________________________

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pure water

water is stored - lakes
- rivers
-resivours

used as a coolant and solvant

purified in 3 types

-sedimentation

-filteration

-chlorination

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low temp washes

low temp washes 
- saves energy and protects.

detergants are salts ( made by clothes neutilations)

some clothes must be dry cleaned

- ssolevnt other than water

-stain does not desolve in water. 

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BATCH

SMALL SCALE

USUALLY FOR DRUGS

- CRUSH PLANTS

- DISSOLVE BY CHROMOTOGRAPHY

ADV:

YOU ONLY MAKE WHAT YOU NEED 
-SAVE RAW MATERIALS
LESS NEEED FROM MACHINERY

DISAVANTAGES:

HIGH LABOUR
CANNNOT RUN 24/7
TIME + MONEY FOR TESTING 

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