Physics OCR Gateway Revision Cards.

Some revision questions and cards to be asked for revision aids.

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What is heat?

  • heat is a form of energy
  • measured in Joules(J)
  • always flows from a higher temperature to a lower temperature
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What is temperature?

  • degree of hotnes on an arbitrary or chosen scale
  • measurement of the average kinetic energy of particles
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What is a thermogram?

  • temperature can be represented by colours.
  • the hottest parts are white/red/yellow
  • the coldest parts are black/dark blue/purple
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What is the formula for specific heat capacity, an

  • energy = mass(kg) x shc(J/KGdegC) x temp. change(degC)
  • or e =mc^t
  • tells you how much energy in joules you need to raise the temperature of 1kg of the material by 1degC
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What is the formula for specific latent heat capac

  • energy=mass(kg) x specific latent heat (J/KG)
  • or E=M L
  • tells you how much energy is needed to boil or melt 1kg of a substance
  • energy is needed to break the intermolecular forces during change of state
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What is CONDUCTION?

  • conduction of heat is the process in which vibrating particles *** on extra kinetic energy to neighbouring particles
  • kinetic energy is transferred between particles, vibrating particles pass on their extra energy to neighbouring particles
  • metals are good conductors due to their free electrons moving and carrying energy with them
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Give 3 examples of good conductors.

  • metals
    • copper
    • aluminium
    • iron
  • silicon
  • graphite (carbon)
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Give 6 examples of bad conductors.

  • glass
  • water
  • plastics
  • wood
  • air
  • materials containing trapped air
    • wool
    • fibreglass
    • expanded polystyrene
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What is CONVECTION?

  • convection ccurs when the more energetic particles move from the hotter region to the cooler region, and take their heat energy with them.
  • when you heat up a liquid or gs, the particles move faster and the fluid is less dense. The warmer, less dense fluis rises above the coolder, denser surroundings
  • s the arm fluid rises, cooler fluid takes its place.
  • as this continues, you end up with a circulation (convection currents)
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What is RADIATON?

  • infrared radiation is an electromagnetic wave, carrying energy and needs no medium to travel through. It is reflected by shiny surfaces and is absorbed by dull and rough surfaces
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Why do energy loss occur in houses?

  • energy flows from the heat source (the house) to the cold surroundings (outside)
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Name 6 energy saving measures.

  • loft insulation
    • fibreglass
    • rock wool
    • mineral wool
  • double glazing
  • cavity wall insulation
  • curtains at windows
  • reflective foil in/on walls
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What is the formula for efficiency? How can this b

  • efficiency = useful energy output / total energy input
  • (x100 for percentage)
  • this can be shown on a SANKEY DIAGRAM
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What is the formula for finding out the payback ti

  • tells you how cost effective different forms of insulation are.
  • payback time = installation cost/ fuel save per year.
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What is REFLECTION?

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What is REFRACTION?

  • this involes the change in direction of a wave due to passing from one medium to another (e.g. air to glass)
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What is DIFFRACTION?

  • whenever waves pass through a gap or move around an obstacle, they spread out
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What is TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION?

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What is the CRITICAL ANGLE?

  • when the refracted light emerges parallel to the block, the light is entering at the critical angle.
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Whats special about a laser?

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How do CD players read CDs using laser technology?

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What is the speed of light?

  • 300,000,000 m/s
  • or
  • 3 x 10^8 m/s
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Describe the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Describe the model of a transverse wave.

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What is the frequency?

  • the frequency is the number of complete waves, circles, or oscillations per second
  • measured in Hertz (Hz)
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What is the formula for the speed of a wave?

  • wave speed(m/s) = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m)
  • or
  • v = f x lamda
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What is the relationship between the size of a rec

  • 'the longer the wavelength the long the ariel needed to pick up the signal.'
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