Physics OCR Gateway Revision Cards.

Some revision questions and cards to be asked for revision aids.

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What is heat?

• heat is a form of energy
• measured in Joules(J)
• always flows from a higher temperature to a lower temperature
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What is temperature?

• degree of hotnes on an arbitrary or chosen scale
• measurement of the average kinetic energy of particles
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What is a thermogram?

• temperature can be represented by colours.
• the hottest parts are white/red/yellow
• the coldest parts are black/dark blue/purple
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What is the formula for specific heat capacity, an

• energy = mass(kg) x shc(J/KGdegC) x temp. change(degC)
• or e =mc^t
• tells you how much energy in joules you need to raise the temperature of 1kg of the material by 1degC
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What is the formula for specific latent heat capac

• energy=mass(kg) x specific latent heat (J/KG)
• or E=M L
• tells you how much energy is needed to boil or melt 1kg of a substance
• energy is needed to break the intermolecular forces during change of state
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What is CONDUCTION?

• conduction of heat is the process in which vibrating particles *** on extra kinetic energy to neighbouring particles
• kinetic energy is transferred between particles, vibrating particles pass on their extra energy to neighbouring particles
• metals are good conductors due to their free electrons moving and carrying energy with them
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Give 3 examples of good conductors.

• metals
• copper
• aluminium
• iron
• silicon
• graphite (carbon)
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Give 6 examples of bad conductors.

• glass
• water
• plastics
• wood
• air
• materials containing trapped air
• wool
• fibreglass
• expanded polystyrene
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What is CONVECTION?

• convection ccurs when the more energetic particles move from the hotter region to the cooler region, and take their heat energy with them.
• when you heat up a liquid or gs, the particles move faster and the fluid is less dense. The warmer, less dense fluis rises above the coolder, denser surroundings
• s the arm fluid rises, cooler fluid takes its place.
• as this continues, you end up with a circulation (convection currents)
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• infrared radiation is an electromagnetic wave, carrying energy and needs no medium to travel through. It is reflected by shiny surfaces and is absorbed by dull and rough surfaces
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Why do energy loss occur in houses?

• energy flows from the heat source (the house) to the cold surroundings (outside)
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Name 6 energy saving measures.

• loft insulation
• fibreglass
• rock wool
• mineral wool
• double glazing
• cavity wall insulation
• curtains at windows
• reflective foil in/on walls
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What is the formula for efficiency? How can this b

• efficiency = useful energy output / total energy input
• (x100 for percentage)
• this can be shown on a SANKEY DIAGRAM
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What is the formula for finding out the payback ti

• tells you how cost effective different forms of insulation are.
• payback time = installation cost/ fuel save per year.
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What is REFRACTION?

• this involes the change in direction of a wave due to passing from one medium to another (e.g. air to glass)
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What is DIFFRACTION?

• whenever waves pass through a gap or move around an obstacle, they spread out
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What is the CRITICAL ANGLE?

• when the refracted light emerges parallel to the block, the light is entering at the critical angle.
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What is the speed of light?

• 300,000,000 m/s
• or
• 3 x 10^8 m/s
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What is the frequency?

• the frequency is the number of complete waves, circles, or oscillations per second
• measured in Hertz (Hz)
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What is the formula for the speed of a wave?

• wave speed(m/s) = frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m)
• or
• v = f x lamda
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What is the relationship between the size of a rec

• 'the longer the wavelength the long the ariel needed to pick up the signal.'
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