Physics

Physics Revision

(Mock) Monday 09 May 2011

(Real) Friday 17 June 2011

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The Nine Types of Energy?

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Kinetic Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

Elastic Potential Energy

Nuclear Energy

Electrical Energy

Thermal Energy

Sound Energy

Chemical Energy

Light Energy

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What is Energy Measured in?

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Joules (J)

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Efficency Formula %

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Useful Energy Transfer / Total Energy Input x 100

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Where is Electricity Produced?

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Thermal Power Stations originally, though electricity can be produced in other Power Stations. Thermal Power Stations can include anything that burn a fuel to make electricity, e.g. coal, oil, gas and nuclear (though it actually burns uranium)

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How do you Produce Electricity in a Thermal Power Station

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1. A fuel is burnt

2. Heat is produced

3. The heat turns water to steam

4. The steam turns turbines

(some excess steam can be condensed back to water and reused)

5. Turbines drive a generator

6. The generator produces electricity which is passed on the the National Grid

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What are CHPs?

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CHPs are combined heat and power stations. They work in mostly the same way as Thermal Power Stations, but any heat energy lost is used to heat surrounding buildings, so they are much more efficient.

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Why is Carbon Dioxide dangerous?

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Carbon mixes with the oxygen in the air to create Carbon Dioxide. Plants need Carbon Dioxide to live and photosynthesize, but too much can contribute to the green-house effect and Global Warming, when heat is trapped in the Earths Atmosphere because of gases like Carbon Dioxide adding to the layer of gases inside the Earth's atmosphere.

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Why is Sulphur Dioxide dangerous?

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Sulphur Dioxide is a poisonous gas and when it mixes with rainwater, it makes sulphuric acid, which is does serious damage to to the environment and buildings.

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What are the advantages of fossil fuel power stations?

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Low Fuel Costs

Dependable

Gas and Oil have a low start-up time

Nuclear energy creates very little pollution

Good for meeting basic ebergy requirements

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What are the disadvantages of fossil fuel power stations?

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High commisioning and decomissioning costs in a nuclear power station

Fuel supplies depleting

Pollution - Carbon Dioxide leads to global warming and Sulphur Dioxide to acid rain

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What are Biofuels?

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Biofuels are fuels that are grown.

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What does Carbon Neutral mean?

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Burning Carbon Neutral Fuel does not increase carbon dioxide emmisions.

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What is the National Grid?

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The National Grid is a network of pylons and cables that transfers the electricity from the power stations to our homes.

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Electrical Power Equation?

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Electrical Power = Voltage x Current (W = V x A)

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Energy Equation?

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What is electrical energy measured in?

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Kilowatt Hours (KWH)

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What is the purpose of a transformer?

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To change the voltage

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What is a step-up transformer?

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A step-up transformer makes the voltage bigger in order to reduce current and reduce energy loss as heat.

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What is a step-down transformer?

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A step-down transformer reduces voltage so it can be safely used.

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