Energy is neither created or destoryed, it is converted from one form to another.
Efficiency = Useful energy output / total energy input
Is the transfer of thermal energy through a substance without the substance moving
Is the transfer of heat energy through fluids by the upward movement of warmer, less dense region in the fluid being pushed away by the colder and therefore denser fluid.
Is the transfer of heat energy in the form of infrared waves. The only method of hear transfer through a vacuum.
WORK DONE (jOULES)
Work DOne (joules) = Force (Newtons) x DIstance (metres)
Energy transferred = Work Done
Gravitational Potential Energy
GPE (Joules) = mass (kg) x gravitational field strength x height (m)
Kinetic Energy = 1/2 x mass x speed squared
Is the rate of transfer of energy or the rate of doing work
Power = Work Done / TIme
DENSITY and PRESSURE
Density (kg/m3) = mass / volume
Pressure (Pascals)= Force / Area
In solds exert downward force
In liquid at any point act in all directions and increases with depth
Pressure DIfference = Height (m) x Density (kg/m3) x g
Particles in matter ar extremely small and in fluids they are in continous state of rapid random motion.
For a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature pressure is inversely proportionate to the volume
Pressure 1 x Volume 1 = Pressure 2 x Volume 2
P1/P2 = V2/ V1
0 degress Kelvin = -273 degrees celcius
For a fixed amount of gas at constant volume
P1/T1 = P2/T2
Therefore pressure is proportionate to kelvin Temperature
Transfer energy from one place to another without transfering matter
The distance between corresponding points in the wave
The maximum displacement of a part of the medium from its rest position
The time for one complete cycle of the wave form
The number of cycles of waveform per second
Frequency = 1/period
Wave speed = Frequency x wavelength
LAW OF REFLECTION
ANGLE OF INCIDENCE = ANGLE OF REFLECTION
n = sini/ sin r
Run Radio Waves
Miles Micro Waves
Very Visible Light
Games Gamma rays
Are substances of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
A radioactive substance has an unstable nuclei and will emit radiation to make the nucleus more stable
Is a random process when the nucleus emits a radioactive particle under-goes a change in structure except gamma radiation as has no mass or charge
Half life of radioactive isostope is the time taken for half the original number of unstable nuclei to decay
The time taken for the activity of a radioactive substance to fall to half its original value.
Can be split into lighter element quite easily
A current in a coil of wire produces a magnetic field
1) Increasing current
2) Increasing number of turns in coil
3) By winding coil around a magnetic material
When a conductor is in a changing magnetic field a voltage will be induced in the conductor or when it moves through a magnetic field. If the conductor is part of a closed electric circuit then the induced voltage will cause a current to flow.
Function = change size of an alternating voltage. Done by having two separate coils with different numbers of turns.
Input Voltage/ Output voltage = Primary turns / Secondary Turns