Terminal Velocity is the constant speed that a free falling object eventually reaches when the resistance of the medium through which is falling, prevents any further acceleration.
Newton's 3 Laws Of Motion
- 1st Law: Balanced Forces. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalaced force.
- 2nd Law: Unbalanced Forces. Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass (of the object being accelerated) the greater the amount of force needed (to accelerate the object.)
- 3rd Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite re-action.
Stopping Distance. Thinking and Braking Distance.
What is stopping distance made up from?
- Thinking distance.
- Braking distance.
Thinking Distance - It takes a certain amount of time for a driver to react to a hazard and start applying the brakes. During this time the car is still moving. The faster the car is travelling, the greater the thinking distance time will be.
Braking Distance - It is the distance the car travels from where the brakes are first applied to where the car stops. If the braking force is too great, the tyers may not grip the rood sufficiently and the car may skid. The faster the car is travelling the greater the braking distance will be.
Stopping Distance. Factors affecting it.
Factors that might increase stopping distance are:
- Greater speed - going at a more powerful, faster speed than normal would be trickier to get to slow it down.
- Tiredness - unaware of what you are doing, delayed reaction time.
- Alcohol and drugs - no control over what you're doing.
- Distractions - less attention being paid, not fully focused, could cause hazards whilst driving.
Braking distance can be increased by:
- Greater Speed - leads to a more sudden stop.
- Poor road conditions - harder to brake at a quicker speed as road conditions and dangerous and increase risks.
- Car conditions - slower braking time as there won't be enough friction on the roads.
Car Design and Safety