- Created by: abbiedye
- Created on: 29-07-18 11:53
What are vector quantities?
- Have a magnitude and a direction
- Include - force, velocity, displacement, acceleration, momentum
- Represented by an arrow
What are scalar quantities?
- Only have a magnitude and no direction
- Include - speed, distance, mass, temperature, time
What are contact forces?
- When two objects have to be touching for a force to act
- Contact forces = friction, air, resistance, tension in ropes, normal contact force, etc
What are non-contact forces?
- If the objects do not need to be touching for the force to act
- Non-contact forces = magnetic forces, gravitational force, electrostatic force, etc
What is an interaction pair?
- A pair of forces that are equal and opposite and act on two interacting objects (basically Newton's Third Law)
What is gravity?
- Attracts all masses
- Important effects - makes all things fall towards the ground and gives everything a weight
Differences between weight and mass
- Mass = amount of 'stuff' in an object, same mass whether on earth or the moon and it is not a force (measured in kg with a mass balance)
- Weight = force acting on an object due to gravity depends on the gravitational field at the location and it is a force measured in Newtons by a calibrated spring (newton metre)
How are mass and weight linked?
Weight (N) = Mass (kg) x Gravitational field strength (N/kg)
The gravitational field strength of the earth = 9.8N/kg
- Mass and weight are directly proportional
What is a resultant force?
- When a force moves an object through a distance, energy is transferred and work is done on the object
Work done (J) = force (N) x distance (moved along the line of the force) (m)
How do you calculate forces?
- Use scale drawings to find resultant forces
- An object is in equilibrium if the forces on it are balanced
- You can split a force into components
Stretching, compressing and bending in energy
- Applying a force may cause it to stretch, compress or bend
- Work done = force stretches or compresses an object - if it is elastically deformed - all energy transferred to the elastic potential energy store
- elastically deformed = the object can go back to its original shape
How does extension link to force?
- The extension of a stretched spring (or another elastic object) is directly proportional to the load or force applied
Force (N) = spring constant (N/m) x extension (m)
Link between extension and force
- There's a limit to the amount of force you can apply to an object for the extension to keep on increasing proportionality
- When the force is great enough, the extension and force are not directly proportional
Energy stored for linear relationships
- As long as a spring is not stretched past its limit of proportionality, the work done in stretching (or compressing) a spring can be found using
elastic potential energy (J) = 1/2 x spring constant (m) x extension squared (N/m)
What is distance and displacement?
- Distance = how far an object has moved and it is a scalar quantity that doesn't involve direction
- Displacement = vector quantity and measures the distance and direction in a straight line (starting point)
What are speed and velocity?
- Speed and velocity both measure how fast you're going, but speed is a scalar quantity and velocity is a vector quantity
- Speed is just how fast you're going with no regard to the direction. Velocity is speed in a given direction.
How do you calculate speed?
distance travelled (m) = speed (m/s) x time (s)
s = v x t
What are typical everyday speeds?
- A person walking = 1.5 m/s
- A person running = 3 m/s
- A person cycling = 6 m/s
- A car = 25 m/s
- A train = 30 m/s
- A plane = 250 m/s
What is acceleration?
- Not the same as velocity or speed
- Change in velocity in a certain amount of time
acceleration = change in velocity / time
deceleration = negative acceleration
How do you calculate uniform acceleration?
final velocity - initial velocity = 2 x acceleration x distance
What is terminal velocity?
- Friction is always there to slow things down
- Drag increases as speed increases
- Objects falling through fluids reach a terminal velocity
- Terminal velocity depends on shape and area (streamline)
What is Newton's First Law?
- If the resultant force on a stationary object is zero, the object will remain stationary. If the resultant force on a moving object is zero, it'll just carry on moving at the same velocity (same speed and direction)
What is acceleration linked to?
- The larger the resultant force acting on an object, the more the object accelerates. The force and the acceleration are directly proportional
- Acceleration is also inversely proportional to the mass of the object
- Newton's second law = resultant force = mass x acceleration
What is Inertia?
- Inertia is the tendency for the motion to remain unchanged
- An object's inertial mass measures how difficult it is to change the velocity of an object
- Inertial mass can be found using Newton's Second Law rearranged into m = F / a
What is Newton's Third Law?
- Newton's Third Law says - When two objects interact, the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite
How do you calculate stopping distance?
stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance
typical car braking distances - 14m at 30mph, 55m at 60mph and 75m at 70 mph
What factors effect thinking distance?
- Your speed
- Your reaction time
What factors effect braking distance?
- Your speed
- The weather or road surface
- The conditions of your tyres
- How good your brakes are
How do reaction times differ?
- Everyone's reaction time is different, but a typical reaction time is between 0.2 and 0.9 seconds. This can be affected by tiredness, drugs or alcohol
- Distractions can also affect your ability to react
What is momentum?
- Momentum is mainly about how much 'oomph' an object has (it is a vector quantity)
- greater the mass/velocity = more momentum
- momentum = mass x velocity
- momentum before = momentum after